4.1 What processes do expert writers use? (LO 4-1) 4.2 How is revision different from editing? From proofreading?

(LO 4-4)4.3 What are good strategies for overcoming writer’s block? Procrastination? (LO 4-8)

Realize that the first draft can be revised. • Write regularly. • Break big jobs into small chunks. • Have clear goals focusing on purpose and audience. • Have several different strategies to choose from.

  • Use rules flexibly. • Wait to edit until after the draft is complete.
  • Research shows that experts differ from novices in identifying and analyzing the initial problem more effectively, understanding the task more broadly and deeply, drawing from a wider repertoire of strategies, and seeing patterns more clearly. Experts actually composed more slowly than novices, perhaps because they rarely settled for work that was just “OK.” Finally, experts were better at evaluating their own work.2

Thinking about the writing process and consciously adopting “expert” processes will help you become a better writer.


Reread draft.

3.0 hours

Measure draft against PAIBOC questions and against principles of business communication. Revise draft. Ask for feedback. Revise draft based on feedback.

Edit to catch grammatical errors. Run spell-check. Proof by eye. Initial memo.

Duplicate and distribute document.How can I overcome writer’s block and procrastination? LO 4-8

? Talk, participate, and practice. Reward yourself for activities that lead to writing. According to psychologist Robert Boice, a combination of five actions works best to over-

come writer’s block:12

Participate actively in the organization and the community. The more you talk to people, the more you interact with some of your audiences, the more you learn about the company, its culture, and its context, the easier it will be to write—and the better your writing will be.

  • Practice writing regularly and in moderation. • Learn as many strategies as you can. Good writers have a “bag of tricks” to draw on;
  • they don’t have to “reinvent the wheel” in each new situation. This book suggests many

strategies and patterns. Try them; memorize them; make them your own. • Talk positively to yourself: “I can do this.” “If I keep working, ideas will come.” “It

doesn’t have to be wonderful; I can always make it better later.” • Talk about writing to other people. Value the feedback you get from your boss. Talk

to your boss about writing. Ask him or her to share particularly good examples— from anyone in the organization. Find colleagues at your own level and talk about the writing you do. Do different bosses value different qualities? What aspects of your own boss’s preferences are individual and which are part of the discourse community of the organization? Talking to other people expands your repertoire of strategies and helps you understand the discourse community in which you write.

To avoid procrastination, modify your behavior by rewarding yourself for activities that lead to writing:

LOCKER (2017). Business Communication: Building Critical Skills (6th Edition). McGraw-Hill Higher Education (US). this as your reference please.       

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