Geert Hofestede defined culture as the combined indoctrination of the mind distinguishing individuals in one group or category from others. In his studies, he argued that values in the workplace are, to a large extent, influenced by culture. Hofstede implemented a six dimensions model with the cultural dimensions representing independent preferences for each state or country. The nation’s score on the dimension is relative in the sense that, humans are unique. Simply put, culture is an aspect that can only be used meaningfully by comparison. Comparative Human Resource Management describes, compares, and analyses HRM and deployment carried out in different nations amidst globalization.

Masculinity and Femininity Approaches

This approach focuses on the extent to which societies stress nurture or achievement (CFI, 2018). Masculinity is associated with the desire to acquire vast wealth, ambitions, and gender roles. On the other hand, femininity focuses on nurturing and caring behavior, fluid gender roles, and environmental awareness. According to Hofstede’s arguments, masculinity represents a society with clearly defined gender roles. In this society, men are expected to be focused, assertive, tough, and dedicated to gaining material success (CFI, 2018). Women, on the other hand, should be concerned in improving the quality of life, attaining modesty, and acting in a tender manner. On the other hand, femininity represents a society whereby, social gender roles overlap. Both sexes are expected to improve the quality of life and act in a modest and tender manner.

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