Q1/ Using equation 13.2 and information from problem #1, calculate the width of the design area of a sprinkler system described in problem 1

Q2/ Using equation 13.3 and information in problem #1, calculate the required minimum flow from the first sprinkler.

Q3/ Using equation 13.4 and information in problem #1, calculate the minimum pressure from the first sprinkler.

Q4/ Define design area:

Q5/ What is CMSA?

Q6/ What is ESFR?

these the Questions that I need help with it. Also, see the document to help you to answers these questions.3 attachmentsSlide 1 of 3

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COMPANION NOTES FOR WEEK 6 LECTURE Example 13.1 An occupancy, considered Ordinary Hazard, Group 2 by NFPA 13 with a design area of 2,000 square feet (186 m2) will be used. The required design density from NFPA 13 is 0.19 gpm/ft2 [7mm/min]. Each sprinkler being used has a 120ft2 (11.1 m2) area of coverage. Establish the number of sprinklers contained in the design area? Example 13.2 Determine the width of the design area from example 13.1? Example 13.3 Using the information from example 13.1, calculate the required minimum flow from the first sprinkler? Example 13.4 Using the information from example 13.1, calculate the minimum pressure from the first sprinkler? EQUATIONS Equation 13.1 – Establish the number of sprinklers in the design area Not only must the size of the design area be determined, but from a practical standpoint, the designer must know how many sprinklers compose the design area. This is done by application of the following formula: #! != #” Where: N=the number of sprinklers in the design area. Ad=the size of the design area [ft2 or m2] As=the actual area protected per individual sprinklers [ft2 or m2] Equation 13.2 – Determine the shape and location of the design area Need to establish the shape and location of the design area. Chapter 22 of NFPA 13 requires the design area to be rectangular with a width parallel to the branch lines of at least 1.2 times the square root of the design area. However, other authorities may require a factor of 1.4. The larger the factor, the more demanding the system will be. Thus, the minimum width of the design area is calculated as follows: $ = 1.2 (*+,-./ #0+1)#.% Where: W=width of the design area [ft or m] Design area=design area [ft2 or m2] Equation 13.3 – Required minimum flow from the first sprinkler The required minimum flow from the first sprinkler (and actually an sprinkler on the system) is determined as follows: 3 = (4+,-./ 4+/,-56)(10+1 76 ,80-/9:+0) Where: q=flow rate [gpm or L/min] Design density = [gpm/ft2 or mm/min] Area by sprinkler [ft2 or m2] Equation 13.4 – Required minimum pressure for the first sprinkler The pressure required to deliver the minimum flow from the first sprinkler is computed as follows: 3 & ;=< = 9 Where: P=the required pressure [psi or bar] q=required flow at the first sprinkler [gpm or L/min] k=k-factor, the nominal discharge coefficient of the sprinklers being used Hazen-Williams Formula Application and Manipulation The Hazen-Williams formula can be manipulated to develop relationships and equations which are useful in analysis of water systems. Equation 5.6a and 5.6b above indicate friction loss in psi/ft or bar/m. Equation 5.7a – Hazen-Williams for pipe length-English Units By adding L to the numerator to represent a pipe length, the loss in any length of pipe can be represented by the following equation: ;’ = Where: (4.52)(@)(.)% (A) (B)(.)% (*)*.)+ PT=the pressure loss to friction in [psi] for specified pipe length Q=flow rate [gpm] C=the Hazen-Williams coefficient of roughness D=the internal diameter of the pipe [in] L=length of pipe [ft] Equation 5.7b – Hazen-Williams for pipe length-SI Units: ;’ = Where: (6.05)(@)(.)% (10)% (A) (B)(.)% (*)*.)+ PT=the pressure loss to friction in [bar] for specified pipe length Q=flow rate [L/min] C=the Hazen-Williams coefficient of roughness D=the internal diameter of the pipe [mm] L=length of pipe [m] Assuming that two different situations are to be represented, the friction loss for each would be as follows: Equation 5.8 ;'( Equation 5.9 (6.05)(@( )(.)% (10)% (A( ) = (B( )(.)% (*( )*.)+ ;’& = (6.05)(@& )(.)% (10)% (A& ) (B& )(.)% (*& )*.)+ If for example, L1=L2, C1=C2, D1=D2, and if equation 5.8 is divided by Equation 5.9, the following relationship results: Equation 5.10 This equation is the same regardless of English or SI units. This equation is helpful if you have a piping situation, if the friction loss for one flow is known, the friction loss of any other flow can be quickly computed. OR ;'( @( (.)% =E F ;’& @& ;'( @( (.)% = (;’& ) E F @& The same kind of manipulation can be done holding three of the five variables constant, yields the following additional relationships, all of which are applicable to any system of units: Equation 5.11 The following equation is very helpful in evaluating the results of hydrant flow tests: ;'( #.%* @( = (@& ) E F ;’& Equation 5.12 *( *.)+ A( = (A& ) E F *& COMPANION NOTES FOR WEEK 6 LECTURE Example 13.1 An occupancy, considered Ordinary Hazard, Group 2 by NFPA 13 with a design area of 2,000 square feet (186 m2) will be used. The required design density from NFPA 13 is 0.19 gpm/ft2 [7mm/min]. Each sprinkler being used has a 120ft2 (11.1 m2) area of coverage. Establish the number of sprinklers contained in the design area? Example 13.2 Determine the width of the design area from example 13.1? 2021-01-09 14:23:31 1/2 Week 6 Lecture-Companion Notes.pdf (1/5) Example 13.3 Using the information from example 13.1, calculate the required minimum flow from the first sprinkler? Example 13.4 Using the information from example 13.1, calculate the minimum pressure from the first sprinkler? 2021-01-09 14:23:31 2/2 Week 6 Lecture-Companion Notes.pdf (2/5) Fire Service Hydraulics and Water Supply Chapter 15 Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems Learning Objectives 1. Explain the designs and operational principles of wet, dry, preaction, and deluge sprinkler systems. 2. List and describe the major components of an automatic sprinkler system. 3. Calculate the pump discharge pressure necessary to supply an automatic sprinkler system. (Continued) 15-1 Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems Learning Objectives 4. Explain the designs and operational principles of wet and dry standpipe systems. 5. List and describe the major components of a standpipe system. 6. Calculate the pump discharge pressure necessary to supply a standpipe system. 15-2 Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems 1 Guidelines For Supporting Sprinkler And Standpipe Systems • Most fire departments protect at least one occupancy that has a fixed fire suppression system. • Sprinkler systems are the most effective way of controlling and/or extinguishing fires. (Continued) 15-3 Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems Guidelines For Supporting Sprinkler And Standpipe Systems • Standpipe systems allow rapid deployment of handlines in remote portions of a structure. • Firefighters must understand the basic operational principles and components of these systems in order to utilize them effectively. (Continued) 15-4 Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems Guidelines For Supporting Sprinkler And Standpipe Systems • Conduct preincident surveys of all occupancies containing these systems. • Incorporate the information gained from preincident surveys into standard operating procedures. 15-5 Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems 2 Sprinkler Systems For Fire Protection • Have been used for over 125 years • Regulated by NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems — This was the first NFPA standard, developed in 1896. — It ensures that sprinkler systems are designed and installed properly. 15-6 Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems Sprinkler Systems Statistics • From 1984 to 1987, sprinklers failed to control the fire in only 24 of 1,225 losses involving sprinklers (2 percent). • 29 percent of the fires were controlled by one sprinkler. • 75 percent of the fires were controlled by ten or fewer sprinklers. 15-7 Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems Other Standards Related To Sprinkler Design • NFPA 13D, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One- and Two-Family Dwellings and Mobile Homes • NFPA 13R, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in Residential Occupancies up to Four Stories in Height (Continued) 15-8 Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems 3 Other Standards Related To Sprinkler Design • NFPA 409, Standard on Aircraft Hangars • NFPA 231, Standard for General Storage • NFPA 231C, Standard for Rack Storage of Materials • NFPA 231D, Standard for Storage of Rubber Tires 15-9 Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems The Four Basic Types Of Sprinkler Systems 1. Wet-pipe systems 2. Dry-pipe systems 3. Deluge systems 4. Preaction systems 15-10 Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems The Two Basic Factors Determining Sprinkler Systems Design And Installation 1. Building type 2. Occupancy type 15-11 Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems 4 Other Variables In System Design • Type of sprinklers to be used • Spacing between the sprinklers • Type and sizes of pipe to be used • Type of pipe hangers that will support the system • Type of valves, alarms, drains, and other system components to be used Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems 15-12 NFPA 13 Occupancy Classifications • Light hazard • Ordinary hazard • Extra hazard 15-13 Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems Light Hazard Occupancies • Low quantity of combustible contents • Low rate of heat release if they catch fire • Include churches, hospitals, offices, and apartments 15-14 Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems 5 Ordinary Hazard Occupancies • Subdivided into two subclasses based on the amount and configuration of combustibles they contain 15-15 Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems Ordinary Hazard Group 1 • Bakeries • Canneries • Electronic plants • Occupancies where combustibles do not exceed 8 feet in height 15-16 Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems Ordinary Hazard Group 2 • Cereal mills • Confectionery products manufacturing • Printing processes • Tire manufacturing • Occupancies where combustibles do not exceed 12 feet in height 15-17 Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems 6 Extra Hazard Occupancies • Those where severe fires can be anticipated • Subdivided into two subclasses Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems 15-18 Extra Hazard Group 1 • Particle board manufacturing • Saw mills • Textile packing 15-19 Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems Extra Hazard Group 2 • Flammable liquid spraying operations • Varnish dipping operations • Flow coating operations 15-20 Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems 7 Classifying Occupancies • The classifications are not always precise or clear cut. • Some occupancies fall primarily within one class but also have characteristics of another. • These classifications serve as the starting point for sprinkler system design. 15-21 Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems Wet-pipe Sprinkler Systems • Oldest type of system • Most common and reliable type of sprinkler system • Entire piping system filled with water at all times (Continued) 15-22 Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems Wet-pipe Sprinkler Systems • Immediate water discharge from individual sprinklers when they are fused • Installed in nonfreezing locations • May be in freezing areas if they use an antifreeze solution (Continued) 15-23 Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems 8 Wet-pipe Sprinkler Systems • Contain an alarm check valve or a waterflow indicator. — These devices sense the movement of water in the system and trigger an alarm to sound locally and in most cases to a monitoring center. 15-24 Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems Wet-pipe Sprinkler Systems 15-25 Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems Wet-pipe Sprinkler System Basic Operational Sequence 1. Heat from a fire causes the sprinkler’s heatactuating plug to drop from the frame. 2. Water contained in the piping immediately discharges from the open sprinkler. (Continued) 15-26 Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems 9 Wet-pipe Sprinkler System Basic Operational Sequence 3. As water begins to flow through the system, the alarm check valve on the water supply riser opens and activates the water motor gong and/or electronic signaling equipment. (Continued) 15-27 Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems Wet-pipe Sprinkler System Basic Operational Sequence 4. The alarm is transmitted to a supervising agency or fire department. 5. If needed, the volume and pressure of water in the system is boosted via a fire department pumper through the fire department connection (FDC). 15-28 Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems Dry-pipe Sprinkler Systems • Air under pressure replaces the water in the pipes above the sprinkler valve in the riser. • Design is most commonly used in locations subject to freezing. • The riser and dry-pipe valve must be in a heated area. (Continued) 15-29 Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems 10 Dry-pipe Sprinkler Systems • Air pressure holds the clapper in the dry pipe valve closed. • Pressurized air is supplied by a dedicated or facility-wide compressed air system. • System may have electric or hydraulic alarm signaling equipment. 15-30 Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems Dry-pipe Sprinkler Systems 15-31 Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems Basic Dry-pipe System Operation 1. Heat from a fire causes the heat actuating plug in the sprinkler to drop from the frame. 2. Pressurized air in the piping begins to flow through the open sprinkler. (Continued) 15-32 Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems 11 Basic Dry-pipe System Operation 3. After a slight drop in air pressure, the quickopening device (if present) activates to accelerate the removal of air from the piping. 4. Once the air pressure is reduced sufficiently, the dry-pipe valve trips open. The interior clapper is held in the open position by a latch. (Continued) 15-33 Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems Basic Dry-pipe System Operation 5. Water enters the intermediate chamber of the dry-pipe valve. This automatically forces the automatic drip valve closed and begins the flow of water through alarm-signaling equipment. 6. Water flows through the entire piping system and is discharged through the open sprinkler. 15-34 Supporting Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems Deluge Sprinkler Systems • Installed in situations that require quickly applying a large volume of water to the protected area • Similar to a dry-pipe system • No water in piping before the activation of the deluge valve (Continued) 15-35 Supporting Sprinkler

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