.Please help me answer all the questions below and due at today 11:59 central time
1.Sketch and explain the variables plotted on a hydrograph and what this type of graph indicates. Remember to explain how discharge is calculated.
2.Explain how the shape and slope of a drainage basin affect discharge.
3.Sketch and explain how the distribution or tributaries influences a stream’s response to precipitation.
4. Sketch the three kinds of drainage patterns, and discuss what controls each type.
5.Explain how gradient and other parameters (there are 5 of them)change downstream and how the stream’s energy velocity relates to the maximum size of sediment that can be transported and how the methods that are used to transport different clast sizes or deposit sediment change with stream energy/velocity.
6.Sketch and describe the difference between braided and high sinuosity (meandering) streams.
7.Name and explain at least FOURcauses of flooding(using bullet points might be a good idea)
8.Sketch and explain the evolution of a meander, including how a cutoff meander forms and how it can lead to an oxbow No connected cracks to form polygons or geometric shapes, cracks with pointed terminations c) All rounded cylindrical forms with consistent thickness B. What do you think a correct name for this structure should be? _______________________________ 7. For reference, compare it to this – Mud Cracks https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/sedimentary-structures-mud-cracksee77184000164d74b9288879859ed9a0 A. Choose what type of structure this is: a) Intrabed b) Bedding plane c) Trace fossil d) Diagenetic B. Choose the correct description for these: a) Mostly complete, well-formed polygons b) No connected cracks to form polygons or geometric shapes, cracks with pointed terminations c) All rounded cylindrical forms with consistent thickness 3 Note: Another model for mud cracks is here: https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/mudcracks-austriaa56dd0c71d934f029bb1cd9d61247485 8. Tool Mark https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/sedimentary-structures-tool-marks-272e6a5b4a346404380441e306d0a7dc4 A. What side is the sole or base of the bed? a) side with bumps b) the side with a number (5 digits) written in black B. What kind of tool marks do you see here? C. What can be inferred about the paleo current direction or type of flow? 9. Hummocky cross stratification (HCS) https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/hummocky-crossstratification-in-sst-acf1b6efc0154b91aa13f3162176cef5 A. Choose what type of structure this is: a) Intrabed b) Bedding plane c) Trace fossil d) Diagenetic B. Given that most of these are hand specimens, you can guess that this sample is about 10 cm across. The scale of true HCS is about 1 m spacings or more of the domal hummocks. You do see some laminations here that are at an angle, and you could likely slap a protractor up on your screen to see what these angles are, but give an estimate of the largest dark orange ”lines”: a) 0-5 o b) 5-15 o c) 20-45 o d) > 60 o C. What angles are HCS supposed to be at? a) 15 o D. What is the more likely appropriate name for this sedimentary structure? a) Swaley cross stratification b) Soft-sediment deformation c) Trace fossil d) Ripple cross lamination 4 Other SketchFab samples 10. Sed Rocks Sample 2 https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/sedimentary-rock-sample-2403fef2f843f4595aa34a76d95fd4e3d A. What is the thickness of the bedding? a) Very thick bed b) Thick bed c) Medium bed d) Thin bed e) Very thin bed B. What is the thickness of the laminae? a) Thick laminae b) Thin laminae 11. Pebbly Beach convolute bedding https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/pebbly-beach-convolute-beddingc57ff38facd14d609ed13ecb8a5af93d A. Choose what type of structure this is: a) Intrabed b) Bedding plane c) Trace fossil d) Diagenetic B. Another appropriate category name for this structure is: a) Massive b) Tool Marks c) Reverse graded d) Soft-sediment deformation 12. Flute casts 2, Germany https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/flute-casts-2-germany-55c996738ea147f8a4f41ee422eca3fd A. Choose what type of structure this is: a) Intrabed b) Bedding plane c) Trace fossil d) Diagenetic B. What originally formed this structure “cast”: a) Migrating ripples b) Upper flow regime 5 c) d) e) Eddy currents scoured along a bed A tool being dragged by a current None of the above 6 Part II –Regular 2-D photo images 13. Samples UUSS 277 and 068088.17 What sedimentary structure do you observe in both samples? What information do these samples yield about depositional conditions (flow regime, sedimentation rate, etc)? 7 14. Samples UUSS 303 and 06083.13 A. What sedimentary structure do the below samples exhibit? _____________ B. Indicate stratigraphic up. (Write top, left, right, or bottom). C. From which type of deposit would this likely form? a) Crevasse splay b) Alluvial fan flow c) Turbidite d) Any of the above e) None of the above 8 15. Field image in fine sandstone below. Hint: Scale card ~ 1 m across, also see diagrams A. Name the structure: __________ B. What Froude number does this structure form at? _______ a) Fr >1 b) Fr = 1 c) Fr < 1 d) not applicable C. The flow would be: a) unidirectional b) oscillatory/combined 9 16. Field image below. Hint: This is a medium-grained sandstone. Scale card ~ 7 cm A. Name the structure: __________ B. Does this structure form at, above, or below a Froude number of 1? (Write as Fr = 1, Fr > 1, or Fr < 1.) C. What bedform comprises this structure? ___________ D. Would the flow be unidirectional or oscillatory? 10 17. Float slab at Gentile Wash, near Helper UT A. Choose what type of structure this is: a) Intrabed b) Bedding plane c) Trace fossil d) Diagenetic B. Another appropriate category name for this structure is: a) Massive b) Tool Marks c) Reverse graded d) Soft-sediment deformation C. More specifically the biggest structures are called: a) Trace fossils b) Diagenetic features c) Groove marks D. What kind of paleocurrent direction would this give us? a) Unidirectional (specific direction) b) Bi- directional (flow could have been either direction along the marks 11 18. Oregon coast 1 A. Choose what type of structure this is: a) Intrabed b) Bedding plane c) Trace fossil d) Diagenetic B. Another appropriate category name for this structure ( ~ 30 cm across) is: a) Massive b) Tool Marks c) Reverse graded d) Soft-sediment deformation C. More specifically it is a: a) Load or flame structure b) Fossil c) Diagenetic feature 12 19. Oregon Coast 2 A. Is the type of structure is shown in the 2 pictures (sometimes aligned parallel to bedding) a bedding, fossil, or diagenetic feature? B. More specifically, these would be called: ____________. C. These are defined as: ___________ 13 20. Mystery: This last one about 1 m across is a combination of physical (temperature changes) and biochemical processes (possible lichens, salts, other). It is called tafoni or honeycomb (you can look it up). Sometimes you will see it in sandstones of S. Utah. A. This would be a structure considered: a) Primary depositional b) Secondary, diagenetic, weathering c) Trace fossil d) None of the above 14 Part III –A Field Trip to check out sandstone! Your choice, whatever is close to you or what you prefer! Visit only one of these 3 parks at general areas shown in pictures below. A. Gilgal Sculpture Garden 749 E 500 S, Salt Lake City, UT 84102 (open 8-8) B. Marriott Library on campus – SW side red ss wall, accessible parts by S steps C. Knudsen Park 6293 Holladay Blvd Holladay UT 84121 * Bring your handlens and your packet of comparison sand grain charts & pho
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