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11/9/21, 3:13 PM Chapter 9 Laboratory 4: Deforestation and Agriculture | EESA01 Laboratory Manual: Introduction to Environmental Science 2020-2021 Chapter 9 Laboratory 4: Deforestation and Agriculture 9.1 Introduction Forests globally have been disappearing at an alarming rate. These losses have had major consequences for Earth’s climate, biogeochemical and water cycles, and biodiversity. While deforestation and forest degradation are a global phenomenon, the loss of tropical forests has been particularly pronounced. For example, one of the most extensively forested countries in the world, and the focus of our assignment here, is Brazil: a country that has seen major forest loss within the Amazonian forest region over the past several decades. One of the main causes of deforestation globally, and in Brazil particularly, is agricultural expansion: the conversion of natural forested landscapes into food production systems. Agricultural expansion can occur for multiple reasons, including subsistence livelihoods (i.e., small scale agriculture), though major forest loss is commonly attributable to very large-scale industrial agriculture. In the case of Brazil, two primary agricultural land-uses – namely cattle and soybean production – are a major cause of deforestation. https://bookdown.org/AndrewA/eesa01_lab_manual_v43/laboratory-4-deforestation-and-agriculture.html 1/13 11/9/21, 3:13 PM Chapter 9 Laboratory 4: Deforestation and Agriculture | EESA01 Laboratory Manual: Introduction to Environmental Science 2020-2021 Using Brazil as an example, this lab will introduce students to open access data sources that are available to evaluate 1) patterns of land-use change that are unfolding within countries and across the globe. Based on Microsoft Excel software, we will use this open access data to 2) understand and quantify how both forest land and agricultural land have changed in Brazil over the past 25 years; and 3) understand the role that expansion of cattle and soy farms have played in driving these changes.  Assignment 4 is 27 marks total – worth 15% of your final grade. This is your FINAL LAB ASSIGNMENT. Please submit a pdf version of your assignment on Quercus under “Lab 4 submission”. Your lab 4 assignment is due by Friday November 20, 4:00 pm. 9.2 Procedure for Laboratory 4 – Part 1/3: Land-use change in Brazil since 1995. Part 1 data instructions: this is a multiple step process involving three different datasets; two of these datasets will be downloaded from an online source, and then the third will be created by merging these two downloaded datasets. 1. Visit the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations data portal by clicking here: FAOSTAT website. 2. Here, click on the “Data” tab and locate the “Agri-environmental indicators” section. Once here, click on the “Land Use Indicators” data tab. https://bookdown.org/AndrewA/eesa01_lab_manual_v43/laboratory-4-deforestation-and-agriculture.html 2/13 11/9/21, 3:13 PM Chapter 9 Laboratory 4: Deforestation and Agriculture | EESA01 Laboratory Manual: Introduction to Environmental Science 2020-2021 Figure 9.1: FAOSTAT main page. Please click ‘Data’. * Figure 9.2: Please click ‘Land use indicators’. 3. A new page will open that allows you to download datasets for multiple environmental indicators, across different countries, at different time periods. https://bookdown.org/AndrewA/eesa01_lab_manual_v43/laboratory-4-deforestation-and-agriculture.html 3/13 11/9/21, 3:13 PM Chapter 9 Laboratory 4: Deforestation and Agriculture | EESA01 Laboratory Manual: Introduction to Environmental Science 2020-2021 Figure 9.3: Environmental indicators data interface. 4. First, we will extract the amount of forest land in Brazil. Do so by requesting data for: A. “Brazil” (in the top left panel). B. “Share in Land Area” (in the top right panel). C. “Forest Land” (in the bottom left panel). https://bookdown.org/AndrewA/eesa01_lab_manual_v43/laboratory-4-deforestation-and-agriculture.html 4/13 11/9/21, 3:13 PM Chapter 9 Laboratory 4: Deforestation and Agriculture | EESA01 Laboratory Manual: Introduction to Environmental Science 2020-2021 D. Select years from 1995-2017 (in the bottom right panel; please note you have to select these years manually, by clicking/ highlighting each year individually). Figure 9.4: Please fill in the required fields as seen above’. 5. Download the data and open it in Excel. Note the data will be downloaded as a comma separated file (“.csv”), but should open in Excel when you click on it. https://bookdown.org/AndrewA/eesa01_lab_manual_v43/laboratory-4-deforestation-and-agriculture.html 5/13 11/9/21, 3:13 PM Chapter 9 Laboratory 4: Deforestation and Agriculture | EESA01 Laboratory Manual: Introduction to Environmental Science 2020-2021 6. From this “forest land” dataset, you will only need the columns entitled “Year” and “Value”; rename the “Value” column to “Percent Forest Land.” Take note of the unit. This is your first dataset. 7. Follow steps 2-5 above again. Except this time: A. In step 4C select “Agricultural Land”. 8. From this “agricultural land” dataset, you will only need the columns entitled “Year” and “Value”; rename the “Value” column to “Percent Agricultural Land.” Take note of the unit. This is your second dataset. 9. Merge your first dataset and second dataset together into a single excel file, so that you have one file with the following column headers: “Year”, “Percent Forest Land”, “Percent Agricultural Land.” This is your working dataset for Part 1 questions, and will be expanded in Part 2, so save it carefully. 9.3 Part 1 Assignment Questions Question 1.1: Create a table in Microsoft Word that shows your data. This data table also should include a brief (i.e., one- or two sentence) title. (1 mark) Question 1.2: Create a graph (namely, an XY Scatter Graph) that shows how forest area (on the Y-axis) has changed through time (on the X-axis) in Brazil. Include a main title, axes labels, and a linear trend line in your graph. In two or three sentences, explain what this graph is telling us. This explanation should explicitly identify which is the independent variable, and which is the dependent variable. (3 marks) https://bookdown.org/AndrewA/eesa01_lab_manual_v43/laboratory-4-deforestation-and-agriculture.html 6/13 11/9/21, 3:13 PM Chapter 9 Laboratory 4: Deforestation and Agriculture | EESA01 Laboratory Manual: Introduction to Environmental Science 2020-2021 Question 1.3: Create a new graph (again, an XY Scatter Graph) that shows how agricultural area (on the Y-axis) has changed through time (on the X-axis) in Brazil. Include a title, axes labels, and a linear trend line in your graph. In two or three sentences, explain what this graph is telling us. This explanation should explicitly identify which is the independent variable, and which is the dependent variable. (3 marks) 9.4 Procedure for Laboratory 4 – Part 2/3: The role of cattle and soy production in driving land-use change in Brazil since 1995. Part 2 data instructions: 1. Again, visit the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations data portal by clicking here: FAOSTAT website. 2. Here, click on the “Data” tab, and locate the “Production” section. Once here, click on the “Livestock primary” data tab. https://bookdown.org/AndrewA/eesa01_lab_manual_v43/laboratory-4-deforestation-and-agriculture.html 7/13 11/9/21, 3:13 PM Chapter 9 Laboratory 4: Deforestation and Agriculture | EESA01 Laboratory M

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