Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 18 The Diffusion of Innovations over Time Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 19 Geospatial Technology & COVID-19 Geospatial Revolution Project https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CjAuDfnVKi4 © McGraw Hill 20 Human Interaction and Technology 2 Transportation and communication technologies have increased degree of spatial interaction (continued). Modern telecommunications. • Internet, communication satellites. • Information flow may be instantaneous regardless of distance. • Space-time convergence. • Space-cost convergence. • Footloose industries. • Telecommuting. © McGraw Hill 21 Communication Hierarchy Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 22 Human Interaction and Technology 1 Transportation and communication technologies have increased degree of spatial interaction. Automobiles have increased ability to overcome spatial separation; with consequences: • Decentralization. • Sprawling urban environments. Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 23 Diffusion of Wal-Mart Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 24 Migration Permanent relocation of both place of residence and activity space. Pressing concern of recent decades. Effects of migration. • Affects national economic structures. • Determines population density and distribution. • Alters traditional ethnic, linguistic and religious mixtures. • Inflames national debates and international tension. © McGraw Hill 25 Migration: Types of Migration Gender and Migration Migration occurs at different scales. • Intercontinental. • Intracontinental. • Interregional. Immigration and emigration Migration may be: • Forced (involuntary). • Reluctant. • Voluntary. © McGraw Hill 26 Forced Migrations: the Five Civilized Tribes Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 27 Migration: Incentives to Migrate 1 Decision to move is a cultural and temporal variable. Voluntary migrants seek better economic, political or cultural conditions – frequently a combination of these conditions. Push factors • Negative characteristics of a location that impel migration. Pull factors • Positive characteristics of a location that attract migrants. Often, migration decision involves both push and pull factors. © McGraw Hill 28 Migration: Incentives to Migrate 2 Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 29 Immigration to Four European Countries— Norway, Ireland, Germany, and Spain—from other European countries, 2018 Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 30 Migration: Incentives to Migrate 3 Economic considerations • Most common incentive for migration. • Poverty. • “Environmental refugees”. • Rural to urban migration. • International migration. Political incentives • Escape war and persecution at home. • Promise of freedom in new location. © McGraw Hill 31 Migration: Incentives to Migrate 4 Cultural variables • Migrants attracted to areas where language, religion and racial or ethnic background of inhabitants are similar. Amenities • Attractive or agreeable features that are characteristic of a place. • May be natural or cultural. • Vary according to age, sex, education and economic status of migrant. © McGraw Hill 32 Migration: Incentives to Migrate 5 Movers versus stayers. Young adults are typically the most mobile. • Initial decisions about occupation and location. • Fewer ties to family and institutions. • Lack of opportunities in home area. Place utility. • Value that an individual puts on a given residential site. • Migration decisions are influenced by analyses of comparative place utility and aspiration level. © McGraw Hill 33 Migration: Incentives to Migrate 6 Goal of migrant is to minimize uncertainty, may be achieved through: Step migration. • Eventual long-distance relocation undertaken in stages. Chain migration. • Migration from a common home area to a specific destination sustained by links of friendship or kinship between first movers and later followers. • Ethnic niche businesses. Rural-to-urban migration. © McGraw Hill 34 Migration: Barriers to Migration 1 Many people choose not to migrate even when conditions are bad at home and known to be better elsewhere. People with limited knowledge of opportunities elsewhere are less likely to migrate than those who are better informed. © McGraw Hill 35 Migration: Barriers to Migration 2 Physical barriers. • Have assumed less importance as a result of modern technological developments. Economic barriers. Cost factor. • Costs of travel, of establishing residence elsewhere and maintaining contact with home. • Costs normally increase with distance traveled. © McGraw Hill 36 Mexican Migration to the U.S. Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 37 Migration: Barriers to Migration 3 Cultural factors • Family, religious, ethnic and community relationships defy the principle of differential opportunities. Political barriers • Restrictions on immigration and emigration. © McGraw Hill 38 Migration: Patterns of Migration 1 Migration field • Area that sends major migration flows to or receives major migration flows from a given place. Channelized migration • Tendency for migration to flow between areas that are socially and economically tied to one another. © McGraw Hill 39 The Migration Fields of Florida and California in 2018 Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 40 Channelized Migration C. C. Roseman, Proceedings of the Association of American Geographers, . 3, p. 142 Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 41 Migration: Patterns of Migration 2 Return migration (countermigration) • Return of migrants to the region of origin. Hierarchical migration • Tendency to move from small places to larger ones (up the hierarchy). • In times of economic decline, there is considerable movement down the hierarchy. © McGraw Hill 42 Migrants Originally from the Former Yugoslavia Intending to Return Home from Germany Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 43 Globalization, Integration, and Interaction 1 The increasing interconnection of all parts of the world. • Brings about greater integration and more spatial interaction. Affects economic, political and cultural patterns and processes. At present, its benefits accrue to a minority of the world’s 6 billion people. © McGraw Hill 44 Globalization, Integration, and Interaction 2 Economic integration • Euro. • Foreign investments. • International banking. • 

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