Chapters 11,12,13 – Organization and Outlining
Chapters 11, 12, & 13: Organization and Outlining
Chapters 11,12,&13 Text – Importance of speech organization, outlining – difference between working OTL and a speaking OTL. Discuss (1/2 to full PAGE) the components and benefits. Special Note: Text – Working and Speaking Outline examples pgs. 195-212.
Here is an example of what it should look like from another students work do not use any of this or plagiarize.
Rachel E- Chapters 11,12 & 13
In chapters 11, 12, & 13 the text explained the importance of an outline. An outline allows you to order your ideas and evidence into small and large categories. The main points are the larger divisions and the smaller ones are the sub divisions of the main points. In a speech there are three main parts, the introduction, the body, and the conclusion. The introduction is used to explain the purpose of the speech and why it is important for the audience to know about the topic. The body of the speech is used to present the main points and the supporting material. As for the conclusion, this brings the speech to an end and restates the purpose, and summarizes the speech as well. The main points of a speech are for the major claims and the key ideas. There should only be between two and seven main points. This is because if there is less main points the better the chances that your audience will pay more attention. Also, each main point should be limited to one idea. The supporting points organize the evidence, and in an outline supporting points are in a subordinate position to the main points which can be shown by an indentation. Outlines also have coordination and subordination where the ideas are in a logical placement with each other. Coordinate points are ideas that are given equal weight with one another. It is important to use transitions in a speech, and in an outline as well. Transitions should be used between speech points and there is a variety of transitions a person can use such as a rhetorical question.
There is many ways to organize your speech points. A person can do it chronologically where the points are in a natural sequence with each other. It can also be in a spatial pattern. This is when your speech is describing a physical arrangement of a place or an object. Arranging speech points using a cause-effect pattern is another way to organize your speech. Also the points can be organized in a problem-solution pattern where the main points are organized to show the significance of the problem and show a proposed solution. Additionally there is the topical pattern of arrangement and the narrative pattern of arrangement. The topical pattern can be used in an information speech and a narrative pattern can be used if the speech consists of a story or many stories.
When organizing a speech it is important to create two outlines, a working outline and a speaking outline. The working outline is used to organize the main points and develop the supporting points. It also should contain the entire speech. The speaking outline is the one where you practice and actually present the speech. Speaking outlines contain ideas in a more brief form than the working outlines. A speech can be organized using sentences, phrases or key words. Each outline determines how you will deliver the speech. For example using a key word outline allows the speaker to maintain more eye contact because the key words will act as a reminder and therefore you will be able to deliver your ideas easier. It is essential to create the working outline first and after you draft your introduction, body, and conclusion make sure to indicate your sources and to create a title. In the examples in the book each point was kept short and simple, and there was a lot of transitions to the next ideas. Finally, when you are ready to construct a speaking outline, shorten the long sentences or phrases from your working outline to key words or phrases. Include delivery cues and practice the speech many times. In the speaking outline example, everything is shorter than the working outline, and also it shows helpful reminders for the speaker when presenting. As shown both a working outline and a speaking outline are important for creating a successful speech.lvi.indd xl LearningCurve adaptive quizzing e-readings 21/10/14 5:01 PM Contents xli Use Concrete Language and Vivid Imagery 235 Offer Vivid Imagery 235 Use Descriptive Adjectives and Strong Verbs 235 c CHECKLIST: Is Your Speech Language Concrete? 236 Use Figures of Speech 236 Choose Words That Build Credibility 238 Use Words Appropriately 238 Use Words Accurately 238 Use the Active Voice 239 Use Culturally Sensitive and Gender-Neutral Language 239 c A CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE: Adapting Your Language to Diverse Audiences 240 Choose Language That Creates a Lasting Impression 241 Use Repetition for Rhythm and Reinforcement 241 Use Alliteration for a Poetic Quality 242 Experiment with Parallelism 242 c CHECKLIST: Does Your Speech Incorporate Effective Oral Style? 242 VOCAL AND NONVERBAL DELIVERY SPEAKER’S REFERENCE CHAPTER 17 245 Methods of Delivery 249 Qualities of Effective Delivery 249 Strive for Naturalness 249 Show Enthusiasm 250 Project a Sense of Confidence 250 Be Direct 250 Select a Method of Delivery 251 Speaking from Manuscript 251 Speaking from Memory 252 c ESL SPEAKER’S NOTES: Avoiding the Pitfalls of Manuscript Delivery 252 Speaking Impromptu 253 c ETHICALLY SPEAKING: A Tool for Good and Evil 254 Speaking Extemporaneously 254 c CHECKLIST: Ready for the Call: Preparing for the Extemporaneous Speech 255 Go to LaunchPad for digital resources: bedfordstmartins.com/speakersguide Video 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd xli LearningCurve adaptive quizzing e-readings 21/10/14 5:01 PM xlii Contents CHAPTER 18 The Voice in Delivery 256 Adjust Your Speaking Volume 256 Vary Your Intonation 256 c CHECKLIST: Tips on Using a Microphone 257 Adjust Your Speaking Rate 258 Use Strategic Pauses 258 Strive for Vocal Variety 259 Carefully Pronounce and Articulate Words 259 c ESL SPEAKER’S NOTES: Vocal Variety and the Non-Native Speaker 259 c SELF-ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST: Practice Check for Vocal Effectiveness 260 c A CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE: Using Dialect (Language Variation) with Care 261 CHAPTER 19 The Body in Delivery 262 Enhance Your Credibility Through Nonverbal Cues 262 Pay Attention to Body Language 262 Animate Your Facial Expressions 263 Maintain Eye Contact 263 c SELF-ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST: Tips for Using Effective Facial Expressions 263 Use Gestures That Feel Natural 264 Create a Feeling of Immediacy 264 c CHECKLIST: Tips for Effective Gesturing 264 c CHECKLIST: Broad Dress Code Guidelines 265 Maintain Good Posture 265 Dress Appropriately 265 c A CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE: Nonverbal Communication Patterns in Different Cultures 266 Practice the Delivery 266 Focus on the Message 267 Record the Speech 267 Be Prepared to Revise Your Speaking Notes 267 Practice under Realistic Conditions 267 Time Your Speech 268 Plan Ahead and Practice Often 268 Go to LaunchPad for digital resources: bedfordstmartins.com/speakersguide Video 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd xlii LearningCurve adaptive quizzing e-readings 21/10/14 5:01 PM Contents xliii PRESENTATION AIDS SPEAKER’S REFERENCE CHAPTER 20 271 Speaking with Presentation Aids 275 Functions of Presentation Aids 275 Help Listeners Process and Retain Information 275 Promote Interest and Motivation 275 Convey Information Concisely 276 Lend a Professional Image 276 Types of Presentation Aids 276 Props and Models 276 Pictures 277 Graphs and Charts 278 Audio, Video, and Multimedia 281 c CHECKLIST: Tips for Creating Effective Pictograms 281 c CHECKLIST: Tips for Creating Effective Line, Bar, and Pie Graphs 282 c CHECKLIST: Tips on Incorporating Audio and Video into Your Presentation 282 Options for Displaying the Presentation Aid 283 Computer-Generated Aids and Displays 283 Flip Charts 283 Chalkboards and Whiteboards 283 Handouts 283 c FROM IDEA TO IMAGE: Using Presentation Aids 284 c CHECKLIST: Incorporating Presentation Aids into Your Speech 287 CHAPTER 21 Designing Presentation Aids 288 Keep the Design Simple 288 Assign Each Point a Separate Slide 288 Word Slides in the Active Voice 288 Avoid Clutter 289 Use Design Elements Consistently 289 Select Appropriate Typeface Styles and Fonts 289 c CHECKLIST: Applying the Principles of Simplicity and Continuity 290 c CHECKLIST: Tips for Using Typefaces, Fonts, and Sizes Effectively 292 Use Color Carefully 292 Go to LaunchPad for digital resources: bedfordstmartins.com/speakersguide Video 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd xliii LearningCurve adaptive quizzing e-readings 21/10/14 5:01 PM xliv Contents CHAPTER 22 Using Presentation Software 294 Give a Speech, Not a Slide Show 294 Avoid Technical Glitches 294 c CHECKLIST: Avoid Technical Glitches 295 A Brief Guide to Using PowerPoint, Keynote, and Prezi 295 Developing a Plan 295 Compose a Presentation in Microsoft PowerPoint 296 View Options 296 Masters 297 Inserting Objects 298 Inserting Video 298 Transition and Animation Effect 298 Compose a Presentation in Apple Keynote 299 Formatting Text 300 Adding Slides 300 Inserting Objects 300 Transition and Animation Effects 301 Navigation 301 Compose a Presentation in Prezi 302 Getting Started 302 Menus 302 Path Points 302 Inserting Objects 304 Navigation 304 Finding Media for Presentations 305 c CHECKLIST: Tips for Successfully Using Presentation Software in Your Speech 305 c FROM SLIDE SHOW TO PRESENTATION: Getting Ready to Deliver a PowerPoint, Keynote, or Prezi Presentation 306 Avoiding Copyright Infringement 308 c CHECKLIST: Ensuring Legal Use of Media Acquired Electronically 308 Go to LaunchPad for digital resources: bedfordstmartins.com/speakersguide Video 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd xliv LearningCurve adaptive quizzing e-readings 21/10/14 5:01 PM Contents xlv FORMS OF SPEECHES SPEAKER’S REFERENCE CHAPTER 23 313 The Informative Speech 322 Focus on Sharing Knowledge 322 Enlighten Rather Than Advocate 322 Use Audience Analysis 322 Present New and Interesting Information 323 Look for Ways to Increase Understanding 324 c CHECKLIST: Help Listeners Follow Along 324 Categories of Informative Speeches 325 Speeches about Objects or Phenomena 325 Speeches about People 325 Speeches about Events 325 Speeches about Processes 326 Speeches about Issues 326 Speeches about Concepts 326 Decide How to Convey the Information 326 Definition 327 Description 328 Demonstration 328 Explanation 328 Take Steps to Reduce Confusion 329 Use Analogies to Build on Prior Knowledge 329 Demonstrate Underlying Causes 330 c CHECKLIST: Strategies for Explaining Complex Information 330 Appeal to Different Learning Styles 331 Arrange Speech Points in a Pattern 331 c CHECKLIST: Guidelines for Clearly Communicating Your Informative Message 333 c SAMPLE VISUALLY ANNOTATED INFORMATIVE SPEECH: Freeganism: More Than a Free Lunch, DJ McCabe 333 c SAMPLE VISUALLY ANNOTATED INFORMATIVE SPEECH: Social Media, Social Identity, and Social Causes, Anna Davis 338 CHAPTER 24 The Persuasive Speech 344 What Is a Persuasive Speech? 344 Persuasive Speeches Attempt to Influence Audience Choices 344 Go to LaunchPad for digital resources: bedfordstmartins.com/speakersguide Video 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd xlv LearningCurve adaptive quizzing e-readings 21/10/14 5:01 PM xlvi Contents Conditions for Choosing a Persuasive Purpose 345 Persuasive Speeches Limit Alternatives 345 c ETHICALLY SPEAKING: Persuasive Speeches Respect Audience Choices 345 Persuasive Speeches Serve as Guides 346 Classical Persuasive Appeals: Ethos, Pathos, and Logos 346 Logos: Appeals to Reason 347 Appeals to Logos Using the Syllogism 347 Pathos: Appeals to Emotion 349 c ETHICALLY SPEAKING: Using Emotions Ethically 350 Ethos: Appeals Based on the Speaker’s Character 351 c CHECKLIST: Displaying Ethos in the Persuasive Speech 352 Contemporary Persuasive Appeals: Needs and Motivations 352 Persuading Listeners by Focusing on Motivation 352 Persuading Listeners by Appealing to Their Needs 352 Persuading Listeners by Focusing on What’s Most Relevant to Them 353 Persuading Listeners by Appealing to the Reasons for Their Behavior 355 Persuading Listeners through Speaker Credibility 356 c SELF-ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST: Tips for Increasing Speaker Credibility 357 c CHECKLIST: CHAPTER 25 Developing Arguments for the Persuasive Speech 358 What Is an Argument? 358 Stating a Claim 358 Providing Evidence 359 Providing Reasons 359 c ETHICALLY SPEAKING: Engaging in Arguments in the Public Arena 360 Types of Claims Used in Persuasive Speeches 361 Claims of Fact 361 Claims of Value 361 Claims of Policy 361 c
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