ESS 21: On Thin Ice 2021 – Exam 1 Practice Questions Answers Part A: Questions are worth 1 point each. 1. The image on the left is the International Space Station. There are currently 6 crew aboard. The space station acts as a(n): a. isolated system b. mostly open system c. mostly closed system 2. Identify this logical fallacy: “You can either create a planet that your children can live in, or you can choose to fly across the world for a vacation.” a. False dilemma b. Argument from authority c. False analogy d. Slippery slope e. None of the above 3. I want to heat up 2kg of water from 5 oC to 10 oC. If the specific heat of water is 4000 Joules/kgoC, how much energy would I have to add? a. 5,000 Joules b. 10,000 Joules c. 20,000 Joules d. 40,000 Joules 4. Which of these diagrams shows the obliquity Milankovitch cycle? A 5. Which of the following is NOT one of the 5 key messages about how climate change will affect the Southwestern US? a. Snowpack and streamflow amounts are projected to decline, decreasing water supply for cities, agriculture, and ecosystems. b. Increased warming and drought will increase wildfires and impacts of wildfire on people and ecosystems. c. Flooding and erosion in coastal areas due to sea level rise. d. Increased temperatures will expand the range of disease-carrying insects. 6. Which of the following news article headlines is about climate change rather than weather? a. “Record breaking temperatures in New York” b. “Ocean acidification in last 30 years causing a threat to coral reefs” c. “Sierra Nevada snowfall down 80% this winter” d. “Santa Ana winds bringing dry air and wildfire danger this week” 7. Which of the following water properties is responsible for transporting heat from tropical areas towards the Pole, or for cooling us down when we sweat? a. high latent heat of vaporization b. high density of water c. high specific heat of water 8. What are the arrows pointing to on the diagram on the left? a. covalent bonds b. electron pairs c. neutrons d. hydrogen bonds 9. Mercury is much smaller than the Earth and much closer to the Sun. Will the solar constant of Mercury be higher or lower than that of the Earth? Solar constant = solar luminosity / 4 π r2 where r = distance of planet from Sun a. Higher b. Same c. Lower 10. Which of the following statements about past climates is FALSE? a. For much of Earth’s history there were no large ice sheets and sea level was much higher b. Human civilization has experienced several dramatic climate changes throughout the past few thousand years without much effect. c. Milankovitch cycles have controlled the timing of glacials (ice ages) over at least the last 2 million years d. Amplifying feedbacks, often related to the cryosphere, have been important in climate history. 11. Aerosols affect climate by: a. reflecting incoming shortwave radiation b. absorbing outgoing longwave radiation c. both a. and b. 12. The diagram above shows a simplified version of the hydrologic cycle. What is the residence time of a water molecule in groundwater? Residence time = amount in reservoir total sources OR sinks a. 300 years b. 600 years c. 800 years d. 1200 years 13. The greenhouse effect of Earth’s atmosphere warms our planet because: a. Incoming shortwave radiation is transmitted by the atmosphere but outgoing longwave radiation is absorbed by certain gases b. Incoming shortwave radiation is absorbed by the atmosphere but outgoing longwave radiation is transmitted c. Both incoming shortwave (visible) radiation and outgoing longwave (infrared) radiation is transmitted by the atmosphere d. Both incoming shortwave radiation and outgoing longwave radiation is absorbed by certain gases in the atmosphere 14. Where will the greatest increase in temperatures be due to climate change over the next 100 years? a. the tropics b. Southern California c. over the oceans d. Arctic areas 15. Which of the following geoengineering techniques would work by reducing CO2 concentrations? a. creating more clouds b. launching space mirrors c. spreading fertilizer into the ocean d. covering the deserts with white material 16. Which of the following is NOT a carbon-free or carbon-neutral energy source? a. wind b. solar c. biomass d. natural gas e. geothermal Part B: Answer the following short questions on this exam paper. The value of each question is in brackets. 1. Planetary energy balance (3) One billion years from now, Earth’s average temperature will be about 50 oC. With reference to the 5 factors that control planetary temperature, give 3 explanations for why temperature will be so much higher then? a) The Sun’s luminosity will continue to increase so more energy will be arriving from the Sun. b) At that higher temperature there will be no ice on Earth therefore there will be higher sea level and these changes will lead to a lower albedo. c) At that higher temperature there will be more evaporation and more water vapor in the atmosphere. Water vapor is a greenhouse gas and so our greenhouse effect will be stronger. 2. Feedback loops (4) An increase in global temperature will cause frozen soil (permafrost) to warm up above freezing. As the soil warms, organic matter contained within the soil will start to decay which releases methane and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Draw the appropriate arrows between the below boxes to demonstrate the permafrost-carbon feedback loop. (3) Is this a positive (amplifying) feedback or a negative (dampening) feedback? (1) POSITIVE / NEGATIVE 3. Earth System Science through diagrams! (2) a) Milankovitch cycles and seasons: Complete the diagram below by drawing the position and tilt of the Earth that would result in extremely hot summers in the Northern hemisphere. (1) b) Blackbody radiation: The Sun’s spectrum is shown on the graph below. Draw the spectrum you would expect from a hotter star. (1) Wien’s Law: λmax= 2898/T Stefan-Boltzman Law: I = σT4 4. Climate change causes and solutions (4) a) According to the diagram above, what amount of cooling is caused by changes in clouds due to aerosols? (1) 0.5 W/m2 b) What creates the largest uncertainty in our estimates of temperature in 2100? (1) The amount of greenhouse gases emitted by human activities over the next decades. c) We can cut carbon emissions by conservation, efficiency, carbon-free energy, and carbon capture and storage. Which of these strategies would the following solutions represent? (2) i) increasing the gas mileage of cars efficiency ii) unplugging your cell phone charger when not using it conservation ESS 21: On Thin Ice 2021 – Exam 1 Practice Questions Part A: Questions are worth 1 point each. 1. The image on the left is the International Space Station. There are currently 6 crew aboard. The space station acts as a(n): a. isolated system b. mostly open system c. mostly closed system 2. Identify this logical fallacy: “You can either create a planet that your children can live in, or you can choose to fly across the world for a vacation.” a. False dilemma b. Argument from authority c. False analogy d. Slippery slope e. None of the above 3. I want to heat up 2kg of water from 5 oC to 10 oC. If the specific heat of water is 4000 Joules/kgoC, how much energy would I have to add? a. 5,000 Joules b. 10,000 Joules c. 20,000 Joules d. 40,000 Joules 4. Which of these diagrams shows the obliquity Milankovitch cycle? 5. Which of the following is NOT one of the 5 key messages about how climate change will affect the Southwestern US? a. Snowpack and streamflow amounts are projected to decline, decreasing water supply for cities, agriculture, and ecosystems. b. Increased warming and drought will increase wildfires and impacts of wildfire on people and ecosystems. c. Flooding and erosion in coastal areas due to sea level rise. d. Increased temperatures will expand the range of disease-carrying insects. 6. Which of the following news article headlines is about climate change rather than weather? a. “Record breaking temperatures in New York” b. “Ocean acidification in last 30 years causing a threat to coral reefs” c. “Sierra Nevada snowfall down 80% this winter” d. “Santa Ana winds bringing dry air and wildfire danger this week” 7. Which of the following water properties is responsible for transporting heat from tropical areas towards the Pole, or for cooling us down when we sweat? a. high latent heat of vaporization b. high density of water c. high specific heat of water 8. What are the arrows pointing to on the diagram on the left? a. covalent bonds b. electron pairs c. neutrons d. hydrogen bonds 9. Mercury is much smaller than the Earth and much closer to the Sun. Will the solar constant of Mercury be higher or lower than that of the Earth? Solar constant = solar luminosity / 4 π r2 where r = distance of planet from Sun a. Higher b. Same c. Lower 10. Which of the following statements about past climates is FALSE? a. For much of Earth’s history there were no large ice sheets and sea level was much higher b. Human civilization has experienced several dramatic climate changes throughout the past few thousand years without much effect. c. Milankovitch cycles have controlled the timing of glacials (ice ages) over at least the last 2 million years d. Amplifying feedbacks, often related to the cryosphere, have been important in climate history. 11. Aerosols affect climate by: a. reflecting incoming shortwave radiation b. absorbing outgoing longwave radiation c. both a. and b. 12. The diagram above shows a simplified version of the hydrologic cycle. What is the residence time of a water molecule in groundwater? Residence time = amount in reservoir total sources OR sinks a. 300 years b. 600 years c. 800 years d. 1200 years 13. The greenhouse effect of Earth’s atmosphere warms our planet because: a. Incoming shortwave radiation is transmitted by the atmosphere but outgoing longwave radiation is absorbed by certain gases b. Incoming shortwave radiation is absorbed by the atmosphere but outgoing longwave radiation is transmitted c. Both incoming shortwave (visible) radiation and outgoing longwave (infrared) radiation is transmitted by the atmosphere d. Both incoming shortwave radiation and outgoing longwave radiation is absorbed by certain gases in the atmosphere 14. Where will the greatest increase in temperatures be due to climate change over the next 100 years? a. the tropics b. Southern California c. over the oceans d. Arctic areas 15. Which of the following geoengineering techniques would work by reducing CO2 concentrations? a. creating more clouds b. launching space mirrors c. spreading fertilizer into the ocean d. covering the deserts with white material 16. Which of the following is NOT a carbon-free or carbon-neutral energy source? a. wind b. solar c. biomass d. natural gas e. geothermal Part B: Answer the following short questions on this exam paper. The value of each question is in brackets. 1. Planetary energy balance (3) One billion years from now, Earth’s average temperature will be about 50 oC. With reference to the 5 factors that control planetary temperature, give 3 explanations for why temperature will be so much higher then? a) ___________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ b) ___________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ c) ___________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Feedback loops (4) An increase in global temperature will cause frozen soil (permafrost) to warm up above freezing. As the soil warms, organic matter contained within the soil will start to decay which releases methane and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Draw the appropriate arrows between the below boxes to demonstrate the permafrost-carbon feedback loop. (3) Is this a positive (amplifying) feedback or a negative (dampening) feedback? (1) POSITIVE / NEGATIVE 3. Earth System Science through diagrams! (2) a) Milankovitch cycles and seasons: Complete the diagram below by drawing the position and tilt of the Earth that would result in extremely hot summers in the Northern hemisphere. (1) b) Blackbody radiation: The Sun’s spectrum is shown on the graph below. Draw the spectrum you would expect from a hotter star. (1) Wien’s Law: λmax= 2898/T Stefan-Boltzman Law: I = σT4 4. Climate change causes and solutions (4) a) According to the diagram above, what amount of cooling is caused by changes in clouds due to aerosols? (1) __________________ b) What creates the largest uncertainty in our estimates of temperature in 2100? (1) _____________________________________________________________________________________ c) We can cut carbon emissions by conservation, efficiency, carbon-free energy, and carbon capture and storage. Which of these strategies would the following solutions represent? (2) i) increasing the gas mileage of cars _________________________ ii) unplugging your cell phone charger when not using it _________________________ Study Guide for ESS 21 Exam 1 2021 Your primary sources of information are the lecture videos and questions, weekly quizzes, and discussion worksheets with the textbook used only for additional background on an optional basis. If a term or topic is in the textbook but we did not mention it at all in the lectures then you will not need to know it for the midterm. Below is a list of the important topics we have covered so far – concentrate on understanding and applying your new knowledge rather than memorizing. I will give you formulae and I will not ask you to write out definitions (although they may come up in multiple choice questions). We will be using Respondus Lockdown Browser and Monitor to proctor the exam online – you will therefore need a working webcam and microphone. The exam will consist of a mixture of short answer and multiple choice questions within Canvas Quizzes. During the exam you can use as many paper notes as you like but you will not be allowed to use calculators, any other electronic devices, and you are not allowed to communicate with anyone else. Because no calculators are allowed, any math questions will be simple calculations that you can do in your head or on paper. From Lecture 1 – Logical fallacies, systems, and feedbacks – Be able to identify characteristics of science denial, including identifying cherry-picking and what logical fallacy is being used in a statement/argument – Be able to describe the difference between open and closed systems – Be able to identify whether something is an open or closed system and the implications of this – Be able to list the 4 major reservoirs of the Earth System and identify which contains the cryosphere – Be able to identify reservoirs, fluxes, and calculate residence times for simple systems – Be able to construct, identify, and explain positive and negative feedbacks From Lecture 2 – What controls a planet’s temperature (Earth’s energy balance) – Be able to use the Stefan-Boltzmann Law and Wien’s Law to explain how blackbody radiation changes with temperature – Be able to describe/explain/analyze diagrams of the five factors that control Earth’s energy balance: o Sun’s luminosity o Distance from Sun o Earth’s atmosphere and albedo o Energy emitted from the Earth to balance incoming energy o Greenhouse Effect – Be able to think about how these factors change on different timescales on Earth and how we can apply the same ideas to different terrestrial planets e.g. Snowball Earth, Faint Young Sun Paradox, Venus From Lecture 3 – Earth’s regional climates and why our climate changes – Be able to explain the difference between “weather” and “climate” – Be able to explain why the poles are colder than the Equator – Be able to explain and analyze diagrams of Earth’s orbit and tilt to explain why seasons occur or identify which season the northern or southern hemisphere is experiencing Be able to explain why it is colder in highland areas Understand and be able to describe, explain, interpret, analyze diagrams of how climate would change due to: o Changing amount and distribution of incoming energy o Changing amount of incoming energy reflected o Changing amount of outgoing energy absorbed o Changes to internal components of the climate system From Lecture 4 – Earth’s past, current, and future climate – Understand that the climate system is characterized by change and be able to give examples of how we learn about past climate changes – Have a rough idea of how different climate has been in the past and how the factors that cause climate changes are relevant on different timescales o For much of Earth’s history no evidence of ice so much warmer and higher sea levels e.g. Cretaceous 100 million years ago o Gradual cooling from 50 million years ago to today due to plate tectonic changes which affected albedo and atmospheric and ocean circulation. Also greenhouse gas levels gradually decreased. o Last 2 million years – glacials (cold periods) and interglacials (warm periods) every 40,000 years or 100,000 years due to Milankovitch cycles and amplifying feedbacks o Last 10,000 years – remarkably stable interglacial climate – Be able to describe how our climate has been changing – Be able to explain why our climate has been changing – Be able to explain how we predict future changes: o What factors are included in climate models o What are some of the major uncertainties in the climate models o “Representative concentration pathways” – what are they and how do we use them (you do not need to know the exact details of population/energy source changes in each scenario but do understand why they are different) From Lecture 5 – Anthropogenic climate change today and into the future – Be able to describe how our climate may change by 2100 – Be able to explain the 5 key messages about the impacts of climate change on the southwest US and how these are related to the cryosphere – Be able to explain how we can prevent worst case scenario climate changes: o Conservation i.e. reduction in consumption of goods and energy o Efficiency i.e. reducing the amount of energy needed by goods and services o Carbon-free energy: ▪ Understand how electricity is generated using fossil fuels ▪ Be able to give examples of carbon-free energy sources and how they would substitute for fossil fuels in generating energy ▪ Be able to explain why we have not yet switched to using renewable energy sources o o – Carbon capture and storage i.e. capture and store carbon emissions Geoengineering solutions: ▪ Be able to describe and explain how they work ▪ Be able to describe and explain advantages/disadvantages of using these solutions Be aware that individual US states, as well as countries around the world, are taking action to cut their carbon emissions to prevent worst case scenario climate changes. From Lecture 6 – Why water is so weird but wonderful! – Understand that all of us require a large amount of water in everyday life but much of that water is “hidden” – Be able to describe and explain the characteristics of the water molecule and why hydrogen bonds form between water molecules – Be able to describe and explain many of water’s unusual properties and why they are important for the Earth system o Thermal properties, including being able to carry out simple calculations related to specific heat o Density of water in solid, liquid and gaseous state Lecture 1d – Feedback loops Learning Outcomes • Be able to identify characteristics of science denial, including identifying cherry-picking and what logical fallacy is being used in a statement/argument • Be able to identify and explain the characteristics of open and closed systems • Be able to identify reservoirs, sources and sinks of a system, and make residence time calculations • Be able to construct and interpret positive and negative feedback loops How we study complex systems 1) Identify the components of the system and how they interact 2) Determine the residence time (how fast do the elements interact, and how fast will a change propagate through the system?) 3) Identify feedback loops – interactions between elements that tend to amplify (positive feedback) or damp (negative feedback) changes to the system? For very complex systems with many interacting elements, we need to construct computer models to predict how the system will respond to a disturbance e.g. climate change as a result of increasing CO2 Feedback loops When the output of a system contributes to the input… Very important to cryosphere and climate system. Feedbacks can be 1) positive (amplifier; increase leads to increase, decrease leads to decrease) 2) negative (stabilizing; change in output leads to opposite change in input) Feedback loops: Negative/stabilizing Amount of CO2 in atmosphere Positive coupling (increase causes increase, decrease causes decrease) Amount of plant growth Negative coupling (increase causes decrease, decrease causes increase) Feedback loops: Positive/amplifying For example – the interaction between sunlight, global temperature, and ice Reflected light Incoming sunlight Dark surface absorbs more sunlight Warmer Lighter surface (ice, cloud) reflects more sunlight (absorbs less) Cooler Feedback loops: Positive/amplifying Start with a decrease to the ‘temperature of planet’. Can you complete the feedback loop? Amount of sunlight reflected (albedo) Temperature of planet Amount of ice Positive coupling (increase causes increase, decrease causes decrease) Negative coupling (increase causes decrease, decrease causes increase) Feedback loops: Positive/amplifying Amount of sunlight reflected (albedo) Temperature of planet Amount of ice Positive coupling (increase causes increase, decrease causes decrease) Negative coupling (increase causes decrease, decrease causes increase) Snowball Earth Hypothesis At one point (~700 million years ago) Earth may have been almost entirely ice covered and much colder because of this feedback So, why are we not a frozen ball of ice still? Image Credit: University of Bristol Snowball Earth Hypothesis Amount of sunlight reflected (Albedo) Temperature of planet Atmospheric CO2 Amount of ice Volcanic activity Lecture 1c – How we study systems Learning Outcomes • Be able to identify characteristics of science denial, including identifying cherry-picking and what logical fallacy is being used in a statement/argument • Be able to identify and explain the characteristics of open and closed systems • Be able to identify reservoirs, sources and sinks of a system, and make residence time calculations • Be able to construct and interpret positive and negative feedback loops How we study complex systems 1) Identify the components of the system and how they interact 2) Determine the residence time (how fast do the elements interact, and how fast will a change propagate through the system?) 3) Identify feedback loops – interactions between elements that tend to amplify (positive feedback) or damp (negative feedback) changes to the system? For very complex systems with many interacting elements, we need to construct computer models to predict how the system will respond to a disturbance e.g. climate change as a result of increasing CO2 Reservoirs, fluxes and residence times Reservoir: amount of material of interest in a given form Flux: amount of material added to (source), or removed from (sink) reservoir, in a given period of time Steady state: sources = sinks, no net change in amount of material Residence time = how long something will remain in the reservoir (also the time it would take to empty/fill the reservoir) Quick Question UC Irvine has about 20,000 students. If 5000 freshmen arrive each year and 5000 students graduate each year, what is the residence time of a student at UC Irvine? a) b) c) d) 2 years 4 years 5 years 6 years Example – Greenland ice sheet Image courtesy of NASA Example – Greenland Ice Sheet 1) Identify the components of the system and how they interact Reservoir = Ice sheet = 3,000,000 gigatons ice Fluxes = Snowfall (source) = 200 gigatons/year Melting (sink) = 200 gigatons/year Snowfall 200 gigatons/year Melting 200 gigatons/year Ice sheet = 3,000,000 gigatons Example – Greenland Ice Sheet 1) Identify the components of the system and how they interact Is this system in steady state? What does this mean about the mass of the ice sheet? a) Yes, mass stays the same b) No, mass is decreasing c) No, mass is increasing Snowfall 200 gigatons/year Melting 200 gigatons/year Ice sheet = 3,000,000 gigatons How we study complex systems 1) Identify the components of the system and how they interact 2) Determine the residence time (how fast do the elements interact, and how fast will a change propagate through the system?) 3) Identify feedback loops – interactions between elements that tend to amplify (positive feedback) or damp (negative feedback) changes to the system? For very complex systems with many interacting elements, we need to construct computer models to predict how the system will respond to a disturbance e.g. climate change as a result of increasing CO2 Example – Greenland Ice Sheet 2) Determine the residence time Residence time = a) b) c) d) amount in reservoir total sources OR sinks 1,500 years 7,000 years 15,000 years 60,000 years Snowfall 200 gigatons/year Melting 200 gigatons/year Ice sheet = 3,000,000 gigatons Greenland ice sheet today – an update Lecture 1b – Open vs Closed Systems Learning Outcomes • Be able to identify characteristics of science denial, including identifying cherry-picking and what logical fallacy is being used in a statement/argument • Be able to identify and explain the characteristics of open and closed systems • Be able to identify reservoirs, sources and sinks of a system, and make residence time calculations • Be able to construct and interpret positive and negative feedback loops Earth System Science • the science that studies the whole Earth as a system of many interacting parts and focuses on the changes within and between those parts Systems: Open vs Closed • A system = an isolated portion of the universe under consideration (examples — this room, UCI, the atmosphere, the Earth) • The boundaries of the portion define the limits of the system • A system is characterized by whether it exchanges energy or mass with surroundings across its boundaries Is the Earth a closed or open system? a) Open b) Closed c) Mostly open d) Mostly closed e) Isolated Earth exchanges energy Some Energy is reflected to space Earth intercepts energy radiated by the sun Some Energy is absorbed and heats the earth Earth has temperature, so radiates energy to space Earth only exchanges tiny amount of matter In: Comets Meteorites Out: Hydrogen Helium Satellites Closed system – Implications • Resources are finite • Can’t throw things ‘away’ • Changes in one part of a closed system will eventually affect the other parts – results in “cycles” Major reservoirs of the Earth System • Atmosphere – mixture of gases (N, O, Ar, CO2, H2O vapor) that surrounds the Earth • Hydrosphere – all of Earth’s water e.g. oceans, lakes, underground water, and includes the CRYOSPHERE • Biosphere – all of Earth’s organisms + any organic matter which has not decomposed • Geosphere – solid Earth (rock and regolith) Material and energy moves between these reservoirs. Lecture 3c – Why our climate changes part 2 Learning Outcomes • Be able to explain why certain regions of the Earth are cold: – why the poles are cold – why we experience cold winters – why it is colder in highland areas • Understand that the climate system is characterized by change • Understand and be able to describe, explain, interpret/draw diagrams of how climate would change due to: – – – – changing amount and distribution of incoming energy changing amount of incoming energy reflected changing amount of outgoing energy absorbed changes to internal components of the climate system Why does our climate change? 1. 2. 3. 4. Changing amount and distribution of incoming energy Changing amount of incoming energy reflected Changing amount of outgoing energy absorbed Changes to internal components of the climate system Why does our climate change? 2. Change in the amount of incoming shortwave radiation reflected a. Changes in surface characteristics (Earth’s albedo) b. Changes in aerosols in atmosphere e.g. volcanic ash Why does our climate change? 3. Change in the amount of outgoing longwave radiation trapped by our atmosphere a. Changes in aerosols in atmosphere e.g. soot from fires b. Changes in greenhouse gas concentrations in atmosphere Why does our climate change? 3. b) Changes in greenhouse gas concentrations – On million year timescales volcanic activity and formation of fossil fuels and carbonate rocks can change CO2 levels On shorter timescales, changes in vegetation/soils, amount of carbon dissolved in ocean, or humans burning fossil fuels can change CO2 levels Can “amplify” other changes http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/MSH/Images/may18_images.html Why does our climate change? 4. Internal changes to the Earth system e.g. a. Changes in the position of Earth’s continents alter albedo and ocean/atmospheric circulation b. Feedback processes Is the below feedback loop positive or negative? a) Positive b) Negative Temperature Amount outgoing radiation absorbed Amount of water vapor in atmosphere Review: Why climate changes 1. Changing amount and distribution of incoming energy – Variations in solar output – Changes in Earth’s orbit (Milankovitch cycles) 2. Changing amount of incoming energy reflected – Surface characteristics – Aerosols 3. Changing amount of outgoing energy absorbed – Aerosols – Changes in greenhouse gas concentrations 4. Changes to internal components of the climate system – Distribution of continents, and atmosphere and ocean circulation – Feedback processes Weekly Quiz 1 • You are now ready to tackle Quiz 1 • 10 multiple choice questions designed to help you realize whether you UNDERSTAND and can APPLY what you have learned, or what you need to ask us about in discussion/office hours • 3 chances to complete quiz and I will take the top score so you have nothing to lose by trying again! BUT… you will only get a score out of 10 – you won’t know which questions you got right or wrong. This is to encourage you to assess your level of confidence on topics and develop your metacognitive skills. • Answers will be available by clicking “view submissions” after quiz closes. I’ll also post a short video reviewing the answers. Lecture 3b – Why our climate changes part 1 Learning Outcomes • Be able to explain why certain regions of the Earth are cold: – why the poles are cold – why we experience cold winters – why it is colder in highland areas • Understand that the climate system is characterized by change • Understand and be able to describe, explain, interpret/draw diagrams of how climate would change due to: – – – – changing amount and distribution of incoming energy changing amount of incoming energy reflected changing amount of outgoing energy absorbed changes to internal components of the climate system “The Climate System” Characterized by CHANGE Why does our climate change? 1. 2. 3. 4. Changing amount and distribution of incoming energy Changing amount of incoming energy reflected Changing amount of outgoing energy absorbed Changes to internal components of the climate system Why does our climate change? 1. Change in the amount or distribution of incoming shortwave radiation a. Changes in solar luminosity b. Changes in Earth’s orbit Why does our climate change? 1. a) Variations in solar output – – – Over billions of years the Sun’s luminosity has increased. Solar output also changes on shorter timescales e.g. 11-year sunspot cycle. Not well understood. Small changes in solar output produce large temperature changes – it is unclear how but must be due to feedbacks Why does our climate change? 1. b) Changes in Earth’s orbit (Milankovitch cycles) – Eccentricity (~100,000 year cycle) – how elliptical Earth’s orbit is Why does our climate change? 1. b) Changes in Earth’s orbit (Milankovitch cycles) – – Eccentricity (~100,000 year cycle) – how elliptical Earth’s orbit is Obliquity (~41,000 year cycle) – how tilted the Earth’s axis is What does increased tilt (high obliquity) do to the seasons? a) b) c) d) Warmer summers and colder winters Warmer summers and warmer winters Colder summers and colder winters Colder summers and warmer winters Why does our climate change? 1. b) Changes in Earth’s orbit (Milankovitch cycles) – – – Eccentricity (~100,000 year cycle) – how elliptical Earth’s orbit is Obliquity (~41,000 year cycle) – how tilted the Earth’s axis is Precession (~23,000 year cycle) – position of equinoxes over time Today… NH winter, tilted away from sun, but closer to it Today… NH summer, tilted toward sun, but farther away Why does our climate change? 1. b) Changes in Earth’s orbit (Milankovitch cycles) – – – Eccentricity (~100,000 year cycle) – how elliptical Earth’s orbit is Obliquity (~41,000 year cycle) – how tilted the Earth’s axis is Precession (~23,000 year cycle) – position of equinoxes over time In ~11,000 years with precession: NH summer, tilted toward sun, and closer to it In ~11,000 years with precession: NH winter, tilted away from sun, and farther away Today 11,000 years ago What would NH seasons have been like 11,000 years ago compared to today? a) NH winter would be colder and NH summer warmer b) NH winter would be warmer and NH summer colder c) Both NH seasons would be warmer Milankovitch Cycles http://io9.com/5906300/5-scientific-explanations-for-game-ofthrones-messed+up-seasons Lecture 3a – Patterns of temperatures on Earth Learning Outcomes • Be able to explain why certain regions of the Earth are cold: – why the poles are cold – why we experience cold winters – why it is colder in highland areas • Understand that the climate system is characterized by change • Understand and be able to describe, explain, interpret/draw diagrams of how climate would change due to: – – – – changing amount and distribution of incoming energy changing amount of incoming energy reflected changing amount of outgoing energy absorbed changes to internal components of the climate system Weather vs. Climate Weather – the state of the atmosphere at a given time & place: • temperature • air pressure • humidity • cloudiness • wind speed & direction Climate – average weather over a long period of time (30 yrs or more) in a given place Which of these news stories are related to climate? B A C D – All of them E – None of them Why are the poles cold? If the amount of energy coming from the sun is more or less the same throughout the year (solar constant) … Why are the poles cold? Why are the poles cold? Because the Earth is spherical resulting in beam spreading Why do we experience seasons? If the amount of energy coming from the sun is more or less constant … Why do we experience seasons? Because: 1. the Earth is spherical 2. of the mechanics of Earth’s orbit around the Sun a) Revolution b) Rotation c) Tilt Why do we have seasons? Earth’s mechanics:

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