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QUESTION 1 10 points Save Answer NOFI is a logical principle that we studied in week one. The acronym means: a. No one is fully informed when it comes to moral issues. b. No felicity (happiness) inheres in doing the morally wrong thing. c. No “ought” can be correctly derived from an “is.” Od. No one can figure what is (and what is not) referred to when we talk about the meanings of moral words. QUESTION 2 10 points Save Answer The following argument commits the logical error (fallacy) of deriving a moral conclusion from only factual/descriptive statements. a. We cannot obtain agreement when it comes to moral issues. Not only there is wide variation in opinions but any efforts to persuade others prove unsuccessful for the most part. Therefore, there are no universal moral truths. b. Hitler was responsible for millions of deaths. Anyone who is responsible for millions of deaths is morally evil. Therefore, Hitler is morally evil. c. Large numbers of animals are made to suffer. But it is morally wrong to make animals suffer. Therefore, many people commit morally evil acts towards animals. Od. It is not self-defense to kill someone who is not an aggressor. When lifeboat survivors threw other survivors overboard (because there was not enough room for all on the lifeboat), this was not an act of self-defense and cannot be justified as self-defense. QUESTION 3 10 points Save Answer The following is a moral (value) statement, not a factual statement. a. There is significant variation in height in a population. b. The Founding Fathers thought that all people are created equal. c. All people are created equal and ought to be treated as such. d. Not everyone who breaks the law goes to jail. QUESTION 4 10 points Save Answer Even though we find words like “right” and “wrong” in the following sentences, only one of them is a moral sentence. Which one? a. It is wrong to skip practice if you aspire to become a good player. b. The right route to take is route R if you want to avoid heavy traffic. c. Every forecast we were given turned out to be wrong. d. It is morally wrong to manipulate other people. QUESTION 5 10 points Save Answer The statement “most people are influenced by their culture in forming their moral views” is factual. It may be true or false; it is claimed that it is true. On the other hand, the statement “it is morally wrong to go against your cultural tradition” is not factual; it is a value-statement (a moral or normative statement.) True False QUESTION 6 10 points Save Answer If the correct way to decide what is morally right and morally wrong is to follow one’s culture, then no culture can be wrong. Even if two cultures contradict each other with respect to some issue, they are both right. True False QUESTION 7 10 points Save Answer In the case of factual sentences, we can in principle verify what makes the sentence true or false. For example, the sentence “the sun is shining at such- and-such a place and at such-and-such a time” is true if the sun is indeed shining at that place and time and it is false otherwise. Even if we do not have access to this fact about the sun, we know how we would go about checking the fact; on that basis, we would then determine if the sentence is true or false accordingly. When it comes to value sentences, on the other hand, we have an interesting philosophical challenge: a. There is no difference between fact -sentences and value-sentences. The same facts that make fact-sentences true or false also make the value- sentences true or false. b. If there are facts that make moral sentences true or false, these must be “weird” facts: they must be facts about such things as “goodness” and “fairness” and “wrongness” and so on. c. Unlike factual sentences, moral sentences are not meaningful and, so, they are not true or false. d. Moral sentences are disguised factual sentences: we see this because we can prove a moral sentence by using only factual sentences. QUESTION 8 40 points Save Answer Take as much space as you need to answer the following question. How do you understand Hume’s claim that it is a logical mistake to derive (to think that you can prove) a moral claim by using only factual sentences in the proof? What does he mean? Is he right? Why is he right? For the toolbar, press ALT+F10 (PC) or ALT+FN+F10 (Mac). B I Y S Paragraph Arial 14px TE 品 Q Q s d iii A > … …

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