Description

National Parks attract visitors from around the country and around the world. The number of entrances, road systems, and existing/aging facilities limits access to the Parks. In many Parks the pressure to develop infrastructure for visitors must be balanced by maintaining wilderness and the natural features people want to visit. Some of the iconic National Parks like Yosemite, Grand Canyon, Zion, and Yellowstone are so busy in the summer that visitors experience long traffic jams, cannot find accommodation, must travel on buses, and/or have difficulty experiencing the beauty of vistas because of large crowds. Is there a point were we love the parks too much? Are extreme crowds at the parks an acceptable fact of the times? If not, what should be done: raise admission fees for all or some groups, make visits on a lottery system, limit entrances on a particular day to a certain number, increase the infrastructure and if so how to fund it, convert more public land into national Parks, decrease infrastructure so the only wilderness-style or guided visits are possible, other ideas? the Herald, but if this is taken to imply not the skill of heraldry but rather a harbinger of what is to come, then human geography’s interest in prediction and forecasting returns us to the footsteps of our seventeenth-century forebear. Be that as it may, none of us is prepared to forecast the scope and contents of the next edition of The Dictionary of Human Geography, which is why working on the project continues to be such a wonderfully creative process. Derek Gregory Ron Johnston Geraldine Pratt Michael J. Watts Sarah Whatmore ix mainp _ softvnn.com How to UseThis Dictionary Keywords are listed alphabetically and appear on the page in bold type: in most cases, users of the Dictionary should begin their searches there. Within each entry, cross-references to other entries are shown in capital letters (these include the plural and adjectival versions of many of the terms). Readers may trace other connections through the comprehensive index at the back of the book. Suggested readings are provided at the end of each entry in abbreviated (Harvard) form; a full Bibliography is provided between pages 818 and 956, and readers seeking particular references or the works of particular authors should begin their searches there. x mainp _ softvnn.com Acknowledgements In the production of this edition, we are again indebted to a large number of people. We are particularly grateful to Justin Vaughan, our publisher at Wiley-Blackwell, for his enthusiasm, support and impeccably restrained goading, and to many others at Wiley-Blackwell (especially Liz Cremona and Tim Beuzeval) who have been involved in the management and implementation of this project. We owe a special debt to Geoffrey Palmer, our copy-editor, who performed marvels turning multiple electronic files into an accurate and coherent printed volume, and to WordCo Indexing Services, Inc., who compiled and cross-checked the Index with meticulous care. The preparation of a large multi-authored volume such as this is dependent on the cooperation of a large number of colleagues, who accepted our invitation to contribute, our cajoling to produce the entries, our prompts over deadlines and our editorial interventions: we are immensely grateful to them for their care, tolerance and patience. It is with the greatest sadness that we record the deaths of two of them during the preparation of the Dictionary – Denis Cosgrove and Les Hepple – and we dedicate this edition to their memory. The authors, editors and publishers thank the following for permission to reproduce the copyright material indicated: Martin Cadwallader for the figure reproduced in the entry for Alonso model from Analytical Urban Geography, 1985. Blackwell Publishing Ltd with The University of Chicago Press for the figure reproduced in the entry capitalism from D. Harvey, The Limits to Capital, 1982. Blackwell Publishing Ltd for the figure reproduced in the entry crisis from D. Gregory, Geographical Imaginations, 1993. Blackwell Publishing Ltd for the figure reproduced in the entry critical theory, based on Jürgen Habermas, The Theory of Communicative Action, Vol. 2, Polity Press. University of California Press for the figure reproduced in the entry cultural landscape from Carol O. Sauer, The Morphology of Landscape, 1925. # 1925 The Regents of the University of California. Peter Haggett for the figure reproduced in the entry for demographic transition from Geography: A Modern Synthesis, 1975. Ohio State University Press/Macmillan Publishers Ltd for the figure reproduced in the entry distance decay from Peter J. Taylor, ‘Distance transformation and distance decay functions’, Geographical Analysis, Vol. 3, 3 July 1971. # Ohio State University Press. Hodder and Stoughton Publishers Ltd for the figure reproduced in the entry Kondratieff waves based on Marshall, 1987, from P. Knox and J. Agnew, Geography of the World-Economy, 1989. Macmillan Publishers Ltd with St. Martin’s Press for the figure reproduced in the entry Kondratieff waves from Knox and Agnew, adapted from M. Marshall, Long Waves of Regional Development, 1987. Peter Haggett for the figure reproduced in the entry for locational analysis, from Locational Analysis in Human Geography, 1977. xi mainp _ softvnn.com ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Cambridge University Press and The University of Chicago Press for the figure reproduced in the entry for multiple nuclei model from Harris and Ullman in H.M. Mayer and C.F. Kohn, eds, Readings in Urban Geography, 1959. Blackwell Publishing Ltd for figures 1 and 2 reproduced in the entry production of space from D. Gregory, Geographical Imaginations, 1993. The Estate of Conroy Maddox for the figure reproduced in the entry for reflexivity. xii mainp _ softvnn.com Contributors AA AB AGH AJB AJS AL AV BA BY CB CF CK CP CW DCa DCl DCo Ash Amin, Professor of Geography, University of Durham, UK Alison Blunt, Professor of Geography, Queen Mary, University of London, UK Tony Hoare, Senior Lecturer in Geography, University of Bristol, UK Adrian Bailey, Professor of Migration Studies, School of Geography, University of Leeds, UK Anna Secor, Associate Professor of Geography, University of Kentucky, USA Andrew Leyshon, Professor of Economic Geography, University of Nottingham, UK Alexander Vasudevan, Lecturer in Cultural and Historical Geography, University of Nottingham, UK Ben Anderson, Lecturer in Geography, University of Durham, UK Brenda Yeoh, Professor of Geography, National University of Singapore, Singapore Clive Barnett, Reader in Human Geography, The Open University, UK Colin Flint, Professor of Geography, University of Illinois, UrbanaChampaign, USA Cindi Katz, Professor of Geography, Graduate Center, The City University of New York, USA Chris Philo, Professor of Geography, University of Glasgow, UK Charles Withers, Professor of Historical Geography, University of Edinburgh, UK David Campbell, Professor of Cultural and Political Geography, University of Durham, UK Dan Clayton, Lecturer in Human Geography, University of St Andrews, UK Denis Cosgrove, formerly Alexander von Humboldt Professor of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles, USA DG DH DL DMat DMar DMS DNL DP EM EP ES ESch FD GB GHa GHe GK Derek Gregory, Professor of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada Dan Hiebert, Professor of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada David Ley, Professor of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada David Matless, Professor of Cultural Geography, University of Nottingham, UK Deborah Martin, Assistant Professor of Geography, Clark University, USA David Smith, Emeritus Professor of Geography, Queen Mary, University of London, UK David Livingstone, Professor of Geography and Intellectual History, Queen’s University, Belfast, UK David Pinder, Reader in Geography, Queen Mary, University of London, UK Eugene McCann, Associate Professor of Geography, Simon Fraser University, Canada Eric Pawson, Professor of Geography, University of Canterbury, New Zealand Eric Sheppard, Regents Professor, University of Minnesota, USA Erica Schoenberger, Professor of Geography, the Johns Hopkins University, USA Felix Driver, Professor of Human Geography, Royal Holloway, University of London, UK Gavin Bridge, Reader in Economic Geography, University of Manchester, UK Gillian Hart, Professor of Geography, University of California, Berkeley, USA George Henderson, Associate Professor of Geography, University of Minnesota, USA Gerry Kearns, Professor of Government and International Affairs, Virginia Tech, USA xiii mainp _ softvnn.com CONTRIBUTORS GP GR GV GW JA JD JF JGl JGu JH JK JL JM JPa JPe JPi JPJ JSD JSh JSt JSu Geraldine Pratt, Professor of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada Gillian Rose, Professor of Cultural Geography, The Open University, UK Gill Valentine, Professor of Geography, University of Leeds, UK Graeme Wynn, Professor of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada John Agnew, Professor of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles, USA Jessica Dubow, Lecturer in Geography, University of Sheffield, UK James Faulconbridge, Lecturer in Human Geography, Lancaster University, UK Jim Glassman, Associate Professor of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada Julie Guthman, Associate Professor, Community Studies, University of California, Santa Cruz, USA Jennifer Hyndman, Professor of Geography, Syracuse University, USA Jake Kosek, Assistant Professor, University of California, Berkeley, USA Jo Little, Professor in Gender and Geography, University of Exeter, UK James McCarthy, Assistant Professor of Geography, Pennsylvania State University, USA Joe Painter, Professor of Geography, University of Durham, UK Jamie Peck, Professor of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada John Pickles, Earl N. Phillips Distinguished Professor of International Studies and Geography, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA John Paul Jones III, Professor of Geography, University of Arizona, USA James Duncan, Reader in Cultural Geography, University of Cambridge Jo Sharp, Senior Lecturer in Geography, University of Glasgow, UK Jon Stobart, Professor of History, Northampton University, UK Juanita Sundberg, Assistant Professor of Geography, University JWi JWy KB KJ KM KS KWa KWo LB LK LL LST LWH MB

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