For questions 54-60, refer to the following study and the accompanying SAS output: The Gardasil vaccine for human papillomavirus (HPV) was approved by the FDA for use in 2006, but widespread adoption has been challenging. Researchers conducted a retrospective study to identify factors associated with patients who complete the three-shot Gardasil regimen within the recommended period of 12 months. They examined data from young female patients aged 11 to 26 who visited clinics of Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions between 2006 and 2008 to begin the three-shot regimen of vaccinations with Gardasil. The variables of interest are:AGE: age (in years)RACE: race/ethnicity (0 = white, 1 = black, 2 = Hispanic, 3 = other/unknown)INS: patient had some type of insurance (0 = no, 1 = yes)LOC: type of location of the clinic (0 = suburban, 1 = urban)PRAC: type of practice patient visited (0 = pediatric, 1 = family practice, 2 = OB-GYN)Note that a patient must have received all three shots within the recommended 12-month period to be considered complete (0 = no, 1 = yes).54. What type of analysis is this?a. Linear regressionb. One-way ANOVAc. Two-way ANOVAd. ANCOVAe. Logistic regression 55. What is the value of the test statistic for the omnibus null hypothesis H0? a. 77.44b. 74.30c. 70.63d. Any of the abovee. None of the above 56. Using a 0.05 significance level, what decision and conclusion should you make regarding the omnibus null hypothesis?A. Because p-value < 0.05, we reject H0 and conclude that all of the independent variables are significant factors associated with completing the regimen.B. Because p-value < 0.05, we reject H0 and conclude that none of the independent variables are significant factors associated with completing the regimen.C. Because p-value < 0.05, we reject H0 and conclude that at least one of the independent variables is a significant factor associated with completing the regimen.D. Because p-value < 0.05, we fail to reject H0 and conclude that all of the independent variables are significant factors associated with completing the regimen.E. Because p-value < 0.05, we fail to reject H0 and conclude that none of the independent variables are significant factors associated with completing the regimen. 57. Are there any reference cells in this problem? If so, what are they?a. No, there are no reference cells.b. Yes, reference cells are black, some insurance, urban location, family practice.c. Yes, reference cells are white, no insurance, suburban location, pediatric practice.d. Yes, reference cell is higher age.e. Both b and df. Both c and d58. How many dummy variables need to be included in the model for RACE?a. 1b. 2c. 3d. 4e. 5 59. What is the estimated odds ratio for completing the regimen for a 15 year old compared to a 25 year old, controlling for all other variables in the model?a. 0.071b. 0.49c. 0.93 d. 1.07e. 2.03 60. Given the estimated odds of completing the regimen for a 20-year-old white female with insurance who visited an OB-GYN in an urban location is 0.3253, what is the corresponding risk of completing the regimen?a. 0.25b. 0.33c. 1.38d. 2.37e. 4.07

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