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SOC476: Study Guide for Exam I. Terminology: Below is a list of basic terms used in social (or any science fields’) research. Know these terms to the extent you “own” them (i.e., You know the meanings and spelling and are able to use them correctly). The terms are listed approximately in the order of appearance in the course: social research science; scientific method; research question; research design data; data collection; data analysis objectivity; intersubjectivity peer review; scientific community literature review basic research; applied research exploratory research; descriptive research; explanatory research data collection methods experiment; survey questionnaire; structural interview; secondary data analysis; content analysis; in-depth interview; observational research; ethnography; field research quantitative research; qualitative research theory; hypothesis; ideology variable independent variable; dependent variable; control variable; intervening variable causality (or causal relationship); correlation spuriousness (or spurious relationship); ecological fallacy inductive approach (or inductive theorizing, inductive reasoning) deductive approach (or deductive theorizing, deductive reasoning) generalization research ethics informed consent; diminished authority anonymity; confidentiality; debriefing sample, population sampling; probability sampling; non-probability sampling simple random sampling; systematic sampling; stratified sampling; cluster sampling convenience sampling; quota sampling; purposive sampling; snowball sampling sampling bias sampling element, sampling frame generalizability saturation point coverage error, response error, sampling error concepts; conceptualization; operationalization nominal (or categorical) variable; ordinal variable; interval variable; ratio variable validity; reliability cross-sectional research; longitudinal research; case study panel study; trend study; cohort study II. Knowledge in social research methods: You should be able to: • Explain why and how the knowledge based on scientific research is more advantageous than knowledge from authorities and personal inquiry. • Explain general steps taken in scientific research • Explain the role of scientific community • Explain the differences between quantitative research and qualitative research • List commonly used data collection methods in quantitative and qualitative research. • Discuss the strengths and limitations of quantitative and qualitative research. • Distinguish theory from ideology • Distinguish hypothesis from theory • Explain how theory and research relate to each other, using the terms, deductive and inductive approaches • Distinguish causality and correlation • Explain what conditions need to be met to establish causality • Discuss why it is difficult to establish causality in social sciences • Identify variables • Identify different types of variables (independent; dependent; control; intervening) in given research scenarios. • Identify cases of ecological fallacy and spurious relationship. • Identify the level of measurement of variables (nominal/categorical; ordinal; interval; ratio) in given research scenarios. • Explain what “population” and “sample” mean in scientific research. • Discuss the importance of sampling in research, using the term sampling bias. • Explain the difference between probability sampling and non-probability sampling. • Discuss the advantage of probability sampling, using the term, generalizability and population. • Discuss the situations in which probability sampling cannot be an option, and which cautions you should take in reading research findings based on non-probability sampling. • Identify sampling element and sampling frame in given research scenarios. • Distinguish coverage error, non-response error, and sampling error. • Distinguish conceptualization and operationalization. • Discuss whether given measurements are reliable and/or valid, and for what reasons. • Identify cross-sectional research and longitudinal research in given research scenarios. III. Understanding of ethics in social/scientific research (Chapter 3): Because most social research involves observation of people, researchers have responsibilities in conducting research ethically so that they do not harm human subjects. You are expected to demonstrate your understanding of social research ethics by: 1) Being familiar with the historical development in the concern for ethics in scientific research (in general) and social research (in particular); 2) Knowing what the Nuremberg Code and the National Research Act are; 3) Knowing the basic principles of federal ethic guideline (i.e., the Belmont Report) and the role of Institutional Review Board (IRB); 4) Knowing in what concrete ways, researchers are expected to protect human subjects; 5) Understanding the complex and fluid nature of ethical research 6) Being able to discuss/critique whether given research protocol is ethical or not by providing logical reasons, and for the protocol deemed unethical, logically discuss how the protocol should be revised, if violation of guideline is justifiable. IV. Sampling (Chapter 5): You should be able to draw samples, using a) simple random sampling, b) systematic sampling, c) stratified sampling, d) cluster sampling, e) convenience sampling, f) purposive sampling, g) quota sampling, and h) snowball sampling

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