I have some articles I want you to look at it and start to discuss all of them.

The task that the professor mentioned is “I have been laboring over the critical place of individual agency in the social problems discourse. Mills and Wrong have been my points of departure. I am uploading a recent essay by Steele. Please think about our focus on agency and social structure and relate it to this essay.”

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09/16/2021 Taghreed Alghamdi Soci511 The journal “The Continuing Relevance of C. Wright Mills: His Approach to Research and What We Can Learn from It” by Miller (2018) explores the major contributions of Mills to sociologists and historians. This renowned sociologist is mainly remembered for his 1956 book titled The Power Elite and the essay he drafted in 1960 known as Letter to the New Left. Even though Mills primarily centered his research on global and national disciplines, scholars and students of regionalism can garner several concepts from his critical and wide-ranging approach. Like any other sociologist, I think Mills assumed that historical context was a fundamental attribute of a detailed analysis of such aspects as politics, economics, and society. I have learned that Mills spent much of his career as a Columbia University professor from this reading. It is thus evident that his distinctive mantra as a university professor was impeccable. For instance, most of his books and articles were highly controversial and influential among the then scholars (Miller, 2018). Beyond thinking from a historical perspective, Mills strived to encourage his followers and students on how to connect personal problems to social structure, come up with an organized system of notes, focus on big challenges, and conduct comparative work. Moreover, he coached them on how to utilize multiple perspectives and write simply and directly. Regarding practice, Mills considered taking a pointedly acritical direction or rather approach to his disciplines. Overall, Miller (2018) provides adequate details regarding Mills’ life and thoughts. As such, it is fundamental in enabling sociologists to understand better how his career life can be utilized as a model of how students might conduct historical research of place and region. Wrong’s (1961) article “The Oversocialized Conception of Man in Modern Sociology” examines the origin of sociological theory. According to Wrong (1961), the primary source of sociological theory is the general questions raised regarding man and society. The article makes a claim that resonates with most scholars; answers tend to lose their intended meaning if they are explained without reference to the questions. As such, it is a concept that has been evident in contemporary theory. An example of a Hobbesian question regarding how men turn out to be tractable to social controls presents a perfect scenario on how reference to questions ensures answers retain their meaning. I find it interesting that the two-fold answer about contemporary theory is the fact that man strives to internalize social norms while at the same time seeking a favorable self-image through conforming to other people’s expectations. From this perspective, the two-fold answers are grounded on the concept of internalizing and expectations. It is a model of man that shapes him into a socialized being, thereby denying the reality identified in the Hobbesian question. In contrast, the Freudian view sees man as a social though not a fully socialized creature. One of the controversies regarding Freudian view is its misrepresentation by sociologists (Wrong, 1961). In that regard, I think it would be necessary for sociologists to come up with a multifaceted conception of human nature rather than depending on the implicit conception grounded on specific sociological challenges. In their quest to achieve this milestone, sociologists have been at the forefront of challenging the over-integrated view of society by the contemporary theory. In this article, Wrong has explored the answers to the Hobbesian question to bring to the limelight the oversocialized view of man implied by most sociologists when challenging contemporary theory’s over-integrated view of society. References Miller, J. E. (2018). The Continuing Relevance of C. Wright Mills: His Approach to Research and What We Can Learn From It. Studies in Midwestern History, 4(1), 2. Wrong, D. H. (1961). The Oversocialized Conception of Man in Modern Sociology. American Sociological Review, 26(2), 183–193. 692376 research-article2017 JAXXXX10.1177/1936724417692376Journal of Applied Social ScienceSteele Presidential Address “When You Come to the Fork in the Road, Take It . . .” Aspirations for Applied and Clinical Sociology: Paradigms to Princesses Journal of Applied Social Science 2017, Vol. 11(1) 5­–10 © The Author(s) 2017 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav https://doi.org/10.1177/1936724417692376 DOI: 10.1177/1936724417692376 journals.sagepub.com/home/jax Stephen F. Steele1 Abstract This 2016 presidential address presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for Applied and Clinical Sociology (AACS) looks forward to possible alternative forms of the discipline. Not intended as a purely academic article, this essay provides an overview of five “aspirations” that the presenter has for applied and clinical sociology and AACS: 1. A sociology that uses its perspectives and tools creatively. 2. Applied sociology will more aggressively mine the human stories that make human social life. 3. Applied sociology will ethically engage action and “doing” to produce positive social change. 4. Applied and Clinical Sociology will demonstrate its value, broaden its functional appeal, and create paths to diversity. Known for its integrative nature as a problem-solution-focused being, AACS will be a model twenty-first-century organization. 5. Sociology will clarify its core and demonstrate its direct value. Support solutions to societal and client problems. The address provides some novel, sometimes humorous, ways to achieve these aspirations. Keywords applied sociology, clinical sociology, public sociology, AACS October 8, 2016 Welcome to Denver! If you like the conference so far, give the credit to Jim Wiest! If you don’t like it, give the credit or lack thereof to me! You may or may not have heard of my term as president of AACS this year. In reality, half the lies you’ve heard are indeed, not true! I’ve had the honor of doing this job twice in my life: president of the Society for Applied Sociology (SAS) in the early 1990s and now president of AACS in 2015-2016. I was tempted to give a then-andnow speech, comparing the points I made then, item for item then and now. After I looked back on that 1993 speech, one word emerged: boring! I could neither subject you nor me to it! So I really hope I can do something that is both light and serious. So now I plan to outline my talk with quotations from a tough old baseball catcher and icon for the New York Yankees, Yogi Berra. His “Yogisms” have transcended at least three generations. 1President, Association for Applied and Clinical Sociology (2015-2016) Corresponding Author: Stephen F. Steele, 7501 Greenwood Avenue N. Unit 203, Seattle, WA 98103, USA. Email: sf.steele@comcast.net 6 Journal of Applied Social Science 11(1) In theory there is no difference between theory and practice. In practice there is. (Yogi Berra) As a kid, I was raised on an Erector Set. Maybe I should say, I raised myself on an Erector Set. While I know it’s still available, I’m going to guess that most of the younger members of this assembly are bewildered by the name. Okay sociologists, heal thyselves! I’m talking about the 1950s. It was an industrial America. I lived outside Detroit, Michigan, the automobile capital of the world . . . (no not Tokyo!) . . . a place where you were either a General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, or American Motors family. Cars, toasters, televisions, most “things” . . . and it was a time of “things,” and “things” were built in factories—built by humans that built these things with their hands, operated machines to build them, or both. Kids from upper-middle-class families like me were supposed to be engineers. As an only remaining child in a household, I spent hours creating things. It really didn’t matter what the thing was. I routinely ignored the guide booklet of examples in the set that had the pictures I “could” make. I just started to imagine something, got an idea in my head, and, then, tried to assemble the myriad of metal pieces, screws, wheels, and motors to make that vision in physical space. One of my best efforts was a model vending machine. The wheels were nobs, the axles were release levers, and the steel beams were the external casings for the machine. I can still see it in my mind’s eye. Now I’m wondering, “Can we imagine our applied and clinical skills as a twenty-first-century Erector Set? Visioning, building, evaluating?” That’s where I’m headed today. I’m not saying that sociologists aren’t creative. We’re really good at imagining and criticizing sociologically. All that has its place, and I must say that we’re good at handling ambiguity (as my friend the late Carla Howery, the longtime champion of teaching at the American Sociological Association [ASA], used to say). But, I’m looking for an ethos of creativity. I really didn’t understand ethos for many years, but now I think I have it: a patterned set of intrinsic beliefs, intrinsic and (my words) indicative of a culture. I’m hoping applied and clinical sociology will have at its “gut level” the desire to create, to make things, social and otherwise. Consider . . . Aspiration 1: A sociology that uses its perspectives and tools creatively. How? An annual award for the most creative use of applied/clinical sociology. You can observe a lot by watching. (Yogi Berra) Fast forward to the postindustrial, postmodern society. The creators are all around us. You don’t need to be trained as an engineer (not even a software engineer) to build in the twenty-firstcentury world. Symbols, bits, bytes, pixels are the bricks and mortar. Any Internet device can draft a new reality. Not a static reality but a dynamic reality constantly changing through interaction and interactive platforms that create multiple realities and dimensions. Let’s look at two scenes and their connection. 1. 2. Scene 1: I encountered two 10-year-olds walking down an urban Seattle street with phones in front of them at face level searching for a Pokemon “thingy” since I don’t know what they really call them. I asked them if there was “one” on Greenwood Street . . . “yes” they said. “Can I see?” “Yup!” And there he-she-it was in real time right there in front of us. Guess what? We sociologists were here long ago. Symbolic interaction reminded us years ago that this did, would, and can happen. Scene 2: On the same four-block walk to one of the many coffee shops in my new neighborhood, I passed an older gentleman with a World War II veteran’s cap pushing a walker, waiting for the bus. I humbly thanked him for his service. I had two brothers in the big war, and my heart still beats for the fast-leaving-us generation who were our parents, 7 Steele grandparents, and great-grandparents. I asked him about him, about his experience, and to paraphrase, he was 19 years old, Hitler had unleashed what was to become the Battle of the Bulge. He served in an artillery unit, the youngest guy in the outfit. He said he and his buddies pretty much figured everything was over when he got up one morning to use the latrine (he used harder words) and through the cracks in the latrine wall he saw a column of German tanks coming down the road! He mumbled something about “brown stains in his shorts . . .,” but now in his 90s on the street, he relived the ensuing battle that had occurred almost seven decades before with a clarity and emotion that was etched in this old man. He talked of honorable men on both sides that sacrificed that day. I was in tears. I was so personally moved to the core. And to think, I almost walked by this treasure. How important is it to simply learn about social life by, as Yogi said, “observing a lot by watching?” By morphing these two scenes, can we build something? By building on our understanding, by mining the bits and bytes of the Internet and face-to-face realities—both so incredibly rich with the human story? The quantitative and qualitative can be used in finding solutions to human problems with an eye to past, present, and future. Consider . . . Aspiration 2: Applied sociology will more aggressively mine the human stories that make human social life. How? By teaching sociological processes and skills as early as possible to help all people learn, know, and value human stories, and then build from them. We made too many wrong mistakes. (Yogi Berra) In my early-life Erector Set example, I didn’t mention that my vending machine model failed. No, it never worked . . . not then, not ever! I tried, but simply didn’t get it right. So, I just quit and started on something else. I’m not sure, but I’m guessing that this was not a “wrong mistake.” Personally, I believe it was a “right mistake.” Do it right the first time is not a bad idea, but when doing it right means not trying at all, or “I’m not going to try unless I’m certain I’ll do it right,” poses a risk-free, if not impossible, situation. Plus it tends to stop creative efforts in their tracks. We’re living in a no-risk, no-reward world where “beta everything” is presented for the purpose of having it fixed by system/user feedback. While I’ve borrowed often from the skilled trades—“Measure twice, cut once,” for example—making “right mistakes” looks like learning to me. In addition, it moves us out on the edge where the unknown and unexpected lives. Using a social construction model, we’re always making up reality and then living in it anyway. Consider two lovers on a park bench, or two 70 yearolds on an Internet dating service. And, by the way, I encourage you to look for work at Match. com or for senior citizens, Ourtime.com . . . By the way what good was that Marriage and Family course anyway? Consider . . . Aspiration 3: Applied sociology will ethically engage action and “doing” to produce positive social change. How? Identifying and clarifying, then, creating standards for practicing sociology. Then, have an international sociology day! If people don’t want to come to the ballpark, how are you going to stop them? (Yogi Berra) This part of this presentation has as much to do with our association as it does with sociology in general. Come on, isn’t human interaction happening everywhere? We need to personally get 8 Journal of Applied Social Science 11(1) out of our comfort zone . . . In fact the foci are the problems and the solutions to them . . . not the discipline. Since when is business not part of society? Go directly to business. Tell them who we are. I just believe the old conference model and the professional association models that cut people off from one another are just not going to work much longer. To get people to come to our ballpark, we’d better start looking like a twenty-first-century, flat, virtual ballpark. Sure, there are many great things associated with “old school.” I believe that our association provides a place for warmth and growth. But there needs to be a better use of time when you bring people together after spending money to get there. The experience needs to be more than giving papers. Oh yes, the ballpark needs to be open to all. One great thing about the AACS mission statement and, hence, the organization—one doesn’t need to be a sociologist to be a member! In essence we want to provide a place where people can promote and use sociological knowledge, applied, clinical, and public sociology for beneficial social change. Our association doesn’t say “For Sociologists Only!” I’m not saying that formally trained sociologists don’t have unique skills, they can deliver important contributions. I am saying that in almost every field—business, government, religion, education, health—people are “doing sociology” in their own way. They are confronted daily with “sociological problems.” They do the best they can, the tools that they gain and share from a variety of disciplines often overlap with ours. We not only have something to contribute, but we can also learn so much by simply partnering with and including others in our midst. We sometimes forget the importance of those who graduate with bachelor’s level sociology degrees. In a very real way, these persons often are immediately thrust into an “applied environment” upon employment. They range from paradigms to princesses. I had the good fortune working alongside many of these people in my four-decade career. Let’s take two examples in particular. First, a young mom was a sociology major with a demanding minor in math. Her data analysis skills and her levels of maturity were both important in securing a

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