Question Description

I’m working on a communications discussion question and need support to help me learn.

Data, Information, Knowledge, Understanding, and Wisdom

Prior to beginning work on this discussion, read the required resources for this week, including the article Informatics: Evolution of the Nelson data, information, knowledge and wisdom model: Part 1 (Links to an external site.). Review the instructions below and research two additional scholarly sources to support your statements.

For this discussion, we will be considering various categories of content. Russell Ackoff theorized that the content of the human mind can be classified into five categories:

  • Data: Symbols and discrete facts. They have no meaning in isolation.
  • Information: Data that are processed to be useful. Information provides answers to “who,” “what,” “where,” and “when” questions.
  • Knowledge: Application of data and information. Answers the “how” questions.
  • Understanding: Appreciation of “why.” This is the process of synthesizing new knowledge from previous knowledge.
  • Wisdom: Evaluating understanding. This is the process of evaluating between options. For example, deciding right from wrong or good from bad.

Consider these categories and create an initial post with the following elements:

  • Analyze how Ackoff’s theoretical model is used in each of the pillars of health informatics: clinical informatics, population informatics, consumer health informatics, translational bioinformatics, and clinical research informatics.
  • Choose three of the pillars of health informatics and provide a real-world example.
    • Explain how each of your examples has impacted health care.
    • Examine how the key informatics skills of communicating, structuring, questioning, and decision-making are represented in each example.

Support your statements with evidence from your sources.


Coiera, E. (2015). Guide to health informatics (3rd ed.). Retrieved from

  • Chapter 9: Information Management Systems
  • Chapter 10: The Electronic Health Record
  • Chapter 11: Designing and Evaluating Information and Communication Systems
  • Chapter 12: Implementation
  • Chapter 13: Information System Safety
  • Chapter 14: Information economics
  • Chapter 32: Consumer Health Informatics


Gosfield, A. G. (2015). Understanding risk-based payer contracts: An exploration of emerging payment models for patient-centered medical homes, accountable care organizations, and episode-based care (Links to an external site.)Journal of Medical Economics, 92(6), 48-52. Retrieved from

  • The full-text version of this article is available through the ProQuest database in the University of Arizona Global Campus Library. This article is an exploration of emerging payment models replacing traditional payment models in the United States. These changing models are closely tied with the generation of health data and the role of the patient and family in health care. This article will assist you in your Consumer Informatics assignment this week.

Martinez, V.I., Marquand, J.L., Saver, B, Garber, & Preusse, P. (2017). Consumer health informatics interventions must support user workflow, be easy-to-use, and improve cognition: Applying the SEIPS 2.0 model to evaluate patients’ and clinicians’ experience with the CONDUIT-HID intervention (Links to an external site.)Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 33,4, & Answer: 300 WordsTags: Health informatics

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