Question Description

I’m working on a communications discussion question and need support to help me learn.

Data, Information, Knowledge, Understanding, and Wisdom

Prior to beginning work on this discussion, read the required resources for this week, including the article Informatics: Evolution of the Nelson data, information, knowledge and wisdom model: Part 1 (Links to an external site.). Review the instructions below and research two additional scholarly sources to support your statements.

For this discussion, we will be considering various categories of content. Russell Ackoff theorized that the content of the human mind can be classified into five categories:

  • Data: Symbols and discrete facts. They have no meaning in isolation.
  • Information: Data that are processed to be useful. Information provides answers to “who,” “what,” “where,” and “when” questions.
  • Knowledge: Application of data and information. Answers the “how” questions.
  • Understanding: Appreciation of “why.” This is the process of synthesizing new knowledge from previous knowledge.
  • Wisdom: Evaluating understanding. This is the process of evaluating between options. For example, deciding right from wrong or good from bad.

Consider these categories and create an initial post with the following elements:

  • Analyze how Ackoff’s theoretical model is used in each of the pillars of health informatics: clinical informatics, population informatics, consumer health informatics, translational bioinformatics, and clinical research informatics.
  • Choose three of the pillars of health informatics and provide a real-world example.
    • Explain how each of your examples has impacted health care.
    • Examine how the key informatics skills of communicating, structuring, questioning, and decision-making are represented in each example.

Support your statements with evidence from your sources.


Coiera, E. (2015). Guide to health informatics (3rd ed.). Retrieved from

  • Chapter 9: Information Management Systems
  • Chapter 10: The Electronic Health Record
  • Chapter 11: Designing and Evaluating Information and Communication Systems
  • Chapter 12: Implementation
  • Chapter 13: Information System Safety
  • Chapter 14: Information economics
  • Chapter 32: Consumer Health Informatics


Gosfield, A. G. (2015). Understanding risk-based payer contracts: An exploration of emerging payment models for patient-centered medical homes, accountable care organizations, and episode-based care (Links to an external site.)Journal of Medical Economics, 92(6), 48-52. Retrieved from

  • The full-text version of this article is available through the ProQuest database in the University of Arizona Global Campus Library. This article is an exploration of emerging payment models replacing traditional payment models in the United States. These changing models are closely tied with the generation of health data and the role of the patient and family in health care. This article will assist you in your Consumer Informatics assignment this week.

Martinez, V.I., Marquand, J.L., Saver, B, Garber, & Preusse, P. (2017). Consumer health informatics interventions must support user workflow, be easy-to-use, and improve cognition: Applying the SEIPS 2.0 model to evaluate patients’ and clinicians’ experience with the CONDUIT-HID intervention (Links to an external site.)Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 33,4, & Answer: 

Thanks to Kevin Ayotte of California State University, Fresno, and Brian Kanouse of Keene State College for their contributions to the sample speeches. Thanks to Gary Russell, Quincy University, for his help with the sample speech of introduction. Special thanks to Teresa Gorrell for working with us to draft and present her speech of introduction. We would like to thank Teri Varner of St. Edward’s University and her students for their contributions to the sample speeches. We are also grateful to Kelley Cowden from the University of Kentucky for her helpful suggestions. We would like to thank LeAnne Lagasse of Texas Tech University for her excellent work revising the Instructor’s Resource Manual (originally created by Elaine Wittenberg-Lyles of the University of Texas at San Antonio and Melinda Villagran of George Mason University, and revised for the third edition by Jennifer Emerling Bone of the State University of New York, Oneonta) and Test Bank (originally created by Tom Howard of the University of Oklahoma and Merry Buchanan of the University of Central Oklahoma, and updated by Jennifer Emerling Bone). Thank you also to Bruce Sherwin and Publishers Solutions for their work on Web quizzes and other resources to accompany A Speaker’s Guidebook, Sixth Edition. 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd xx 21/10/14 5:01 PM Preface xxi We very much appreciate the assistance of the hundreds of reviewers whose feedback and advice allowed us to make A Speaker’s Guidebook: Text and Reference, Sixth Edition, better. Please see the following pages for a list of each of these reviewers. The sixth edition of A Speaker’s Guidebook demanded constant attention and labor from the dedicated team at Bedford/St. Martin’s. Publisher Erika Guiterrez has now been the guiding spirit for the book for over a decade, and we are ever grateful for her countless editorial, marketing, and sales contributions to its success. Senior Development Editor Lorraina Morrison devoted innumerable hours on all aspects of development, from editing chapters with great good cheer and tact, to spearheading a superb series of speech videos, to laboring over one thousand and one other details, and we are most grateful. We also thank Associate Editor Alexis Smith, whose contribution to the LearningCurve questions adds a new and vital dimension to the text; and Editorial Assistant Joanna Kamouh for her always swift and efficient help, hard work, and good instincts. Pamela Lawson, Production Editor, expertly guided the text through a complicated production process under the direction of Steven Cestaro and Elise S. Kaiser. Thanks to Thomas Kane, Senior New Media Editor for helping us to develop LaunchPad. We are grateful to Thomas Digiano, Marketing Manager, for his sales and marketing efforts. Virtual Focus Group Participants Marlene Atkins, The Illinois Institute of Art, Schaumburg Steven Cohen, University of Maryland Diana Cooley, Lone Star College, North Harris Dustin Crosby, Southern Oregon University Paul Crowley, Spartanburg Community College Emilie Falc, Winona State University Richard Harris, Southeastern University Bruce Holmes, Stratford University Monica Maxwell, Georgetown University Gary Russell, Quincy University Reviewers and Survey Respondents Rebecca Aarestad, Waubun High School Karen Alman, Wenatchee Valley College Oluwunmi Ariyo, Vance Granville Community College Kathy Berggren, Cornell University Aria Bernstein, Georgia Perimeter College Steven Bisch, Washington State University Tri-Cities Becky Behm, Alexandria Technical and Community College Esther Boucher, Worchester Polytechnic Institute 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd xxi Greg Brecht, University of South Florida St. Petersburg Carol Brown, Centralia College Carolyn Calhoon Dillahunt, Yakima Valley Community College Marybeth Callison, University of Georgia Diane Carter, University of Idaho Linda Carvalho Cooley, Reedley College Anthony Cavaluzzi, SUNY Adirondack Melinda Christianson, Underwood School Jeanne Christie, Western Connecticut State University 21/10/14 5:01 PM xxii Preface John Castagna, Penn State Abington Mittie Jane Crouch, Tidewater Community College Anna Cross, Portsmouth Public Schools Rose Crnkovich, Trinity High School Kevin Cummings, Mercer University Staci Dinerstein, William Patterson University Donna Elkins, Jefferson Community and Technical College Sarah Engle, Liverpool High School Julie Floyd, Central Georgia Technical College Amy Gall, St. Louis Christian College Ellen Gabrielleschi, Clarke University Jerry Gibbens, Williams Baptist College Beate Gilliar, Manchester University Cheryl Golemo, Harper College Alan Gousie, Community College of Rhode Island Orsini Gonzalez, City College Robin Grantham, Georgia Military College Jennifer Hallett, Young Harris College Debra Harper-LeBlanc, Lone Star College, Greenspoint Center Carla Harrell, Old Dominion University Richard Harrison, Kilgore College Marcia Hines-Colvin, Saint Mary’s University of Minnesota Gregory Hudson, Cincinnati State Jessica Hurless, Casper College Susan Isaacs, Union College Kathleen Jacquette, Farmingdale State College Marlena Karami, Roxbury Community College Veronica Koehn, Oregon Institute of Technology Beth Konrad, Loyola University Chicago Kelly Lancaster, School of Art and Design Ross Larson, Carthage College Darren Linvill, Clemson University Shane Martin, Fitchburg State University Amanda Martinez, Davidson College Chandra Massner, University of Pikeville Julia McDermott-Swanson, Santa Rosa Junior College Jamie McKown, College of the Atlantic Ellen Mroz, Community College of Rhode Island Diorah Nelson, Hillsborough Community College Charles Parker, Friends University Elaine Pascale, Suffolk University Shelli Pentimall Bookler, Bucks County Community College Brandi Quesenberry, Virginia Tech Gail G. Reid, University of West Georgia Donald Rhoads, Thaddeus Stevens College of Technology R. Joseph Rodriguez, University of Texas at Austin Sue Roeglin, Georgetown University Gerald Savage, Illinois State University Lynn Scramuzza, University of Scranton Gretchen Skivington, Great Basin College Julie Suek, Lower Columbia College Gregory Thomas, Morgan Community College Shauna Vey, New York City College of Technology CUNY Fred Whiting, Art Institute of Washington, DC Jon A. Williams, Niagara County Community College Kathleen Williams, Bergen Community College Ty Williams, St. Philip’s College Reviewers and Survey Respondents, Fifth Edition Diane Auten, Allan Hancock College; Diane M. Badzinski, Colorado Christian University; Raymond Bell, Calhoun Community College; Jeffrey D. Brand, Millikin University; Lacinda Brese, Southeastern Oklahoma State University; Jennifer L. Chakroff, Lasell College; Jeannette Duarte, Rio Hondo College; Richard E. Edwards, Baylor University; Donna Elkins, Jefferson Community and 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd xxii 21/10/14 5:01 PM Preface xxiii Technical College; Nancy M. Fisher, Ohio State University; David S. Fusani, Erie Community College; Jeffery Gentry, Rogers State University; Kim Gerhardt, San Diego Mesa College; Steven Grant, Florida State College at Jacksonville; Carla Harrell, Old Dominion University; Constance G. Hudspeth, Rollins College and Valencia Community College; Carie Kapellusch, Texas Christian University; Carol Koris, Johnson & Wales University; Steve Madden, Coastal Carolina University; Brian R. McGee, College of Charleston; Teresa Metzger, California State University San Marcos; Alexa G. Naramore, University of Cincinnati; Clayton Coke Newell, University of Saint Francis; Nikki Poppen-Eagan, Pierce College; Mark Ristroph, Augusta Technical College; Gary E. Russell, Quincy University; Jeffrey VanCleave, University of Kentucky; Teri Lynn Varner, St. Edward’s University; John T. Warren, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale; and Allyson Zadeh, Front Range Community College. Reviewers and Survey Respondents, Fourth Edition Stephanie Ahfeldt, Concordia College; Allison Ainsworth, Gainesville State College; Timothy Anderson, Elgin Community College; Dencil K. Backus, California University of Pennsylvania; Robert Betts, Rock Valley College; Thomas Bovino, Suffolk County Community College; Amanda Brown, University of Wisconsin, Stout; Christa Brown, Minnesota State University; Edward Clift, Woodbury University; Michael D. Crum, Coastal Carolina Community College; Kevin Cummings, Mercer University; Julie Davis, College of Charleston; Gary Deaton, University of Transylvania; Cynthia Dewar, City College of San Francisco; Thomas F. Downard, Northeastern University; Fred Fitch, Kean University; James J. Floyd, University of Central Missouri; Sonia Margarita Gangotena, Blinn College; Ron Gephart, Southwest Tennessee Community College; Valerie Manno Giroux, University of Miami; Keith H. Griffin, University of South Carolina; Diane Gruber, Arizona State University; Deborah Hefferin, Broward Community College; Emily Holler, Kennesaw State University; Brendan B. Kelly, University of West Florida; Carol Koris, Johnson & Wales University, North Miami; Lynn Kuechle, Minnesota State University, Mankato; Victoria Leonard, College of the Canyons; Nancy Levin, Palm Beach Community College; Natabhona Mabachi, University of Kansas; Anne McIntosh, Central Piedmont Community College; Marjorie Keeshan Nadler, Miami University; Phyllis Ngai, University of Montana, Missoula; Kekeli Nuviadenu, Bethune-Cookman College; Keith Perry, Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College; Brian Pilling, Westminster College; Roger D. Priest, Ivy Tech Community College; Paul Raptis, Gainesville State College; Kenna J. Reeves, Emporia State University; John Reffue, Hillsborough Community College; Rebecca Robideaux, Boise State University; Karin Russell, Keiser University; John Saunders, Columbus State University; James M. Schnoebelen, Washburn University; Karen Michelle Scott, Savannah College of Art & Design; Pam Speights, Wharton County Junior College; Erik Stroner, Iowa Central Community College; Bonnye Stuart, Winthrop 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd xxiii 21/10/14 5:01 PM xxiv Preface University; Sarah Elizabeth Symonds, Coastal Carolina Community College; Laura R. Umphrey, Northern Arizona University; Steve Vrooman, Texas Lutheran University; Marta Walz, Elgin Community College; Stephanie Webster, University of Florida; Kristopher Robert Weeks, Montclair State University; David E. Williams, Texas Tech University; and Jim Wilson, Shelton State Community College. Reviewers and Survey Respondents, Third Edition Helen Acosta, Bakersfield College; Nedra Adams-Soller, College of Lake County; Sue Aiello, New York Institute of Technology, Main Campus; Robert Alexander, Bucks County Community College; Jason Ames, Chabot College; James Anderson, Johnson & Wales University; Robert Arend, San Diego Miramar College; Mike Armstrong, Tallahassee Community College; Jay Baglia, San Jose State University; Kaylene Barbe, Oklahoma Baptist University; Cameron Basquiat, Community College of Southern Nevada; Kimberly Batty-Herbert, Broward Community College North; Elizabeth Bell, University of South Florida; Ray Bell, John C. Calhoun State Community College; Christina Benac, Ball State University; Mary Jane Berger, College of Saint Benedict; Kathy Berggren, Cornell University; Mark Bergmooser, Monroe County Community College; Sandra Berkowitz, University of Maine; Constance Berman, Berkshire Community College; Bob Betts, Rock Valley College; Pete Bicak, Rockhurst University; Rochelle Bird, Utah Valley State College; T. Black, Shepherd College; Marian Blue, Skagit Valley Community College, Oak300 WordsTags: Health informatics

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