STARS Learning Goals for this Credit Communicate scientific information clearly, thoroughly and accurately. Design an investigation or model using appropriate scientific tools, resources and methods. Learning Goals for this Lesson  Describe how astronomers measure the composition, temperature, brightness, and distance of stars.  Explain why stars appear to move in the sky.  Describe the life cycle of a star. Lesson Assignments  Connect to Prior Knowledge  Exploration Activity  Reading and Questions  Videos (optional)  Starquakes Hold Secrets of Stellar Evolution  Review Questions Engage Connect to Prior Knowledge When you look up at the stars in the night sky, what are some differences about them you notice? __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ 22 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 Explore Exploration Activity Astronomers can determine the temperature of individual stars based on their color. The surface temperature of stars increases as you move across the spectrum from red to blue, as shown in the table below. Star Color Red Orange Yellow Yellow-white White Blue-white Blue Star Color Versus Temperature Surface Temperature (oC) Less than 3,500 3,500 – 5,000 5,000 – 6,000 6,000 – 7,500 7,500 – 10,000 10,000 – 30,000 Above 30,000 This data can be plotted as a line graph to create a visual display, as shown in the line graph below. The x-axis was chosen for star color to show the increase in surface temperature as you move across the spectrum from red to blue. Temperature is on the y-axis. The low end of each temperature range was plotted on the graph. The arbitrary value of 3000 °C was chosen for red. 23 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 Use the line graph on the previous page to answer the following questions. 1. What is the low end of the range of surface temperatures for white stars? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 2. What is the low end of the range of surface temperatures for blue-white stars? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. What color of stars have a temperature of around 6,000 °C at the low end of their temperature range? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 4. What color of stars have a temperature of around 3,500 °C at the low end of their temperature range? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ Holt McDougal. Earth Science Chapter 30 Graphing Skills Worksheet. Austin, TX: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, 2010. PDF. 24 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 Explain Complete the reading activity below. In the first box take notes from the reading on the given topic. In the second box explain the reading through a visual, summary, example, or evidence. Reading  Holt McDougal Earth Science Chapter 30 Section 1 pages 845-850 The links below the reading assignments are to the digital version of the textbook. If you wish to complete the reading from your computer, or if you would like to listen to the audio version of the textbook, click the link and sign in using your HMH login issued to you by your teacher. How do astronomers determine the composition of a star? Notes: Visual, summary, example, or evidence: How do astronomers determine the temperature of a star? Notes: Visual, summary, example, or evidence: 25 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 Why does Polaris appear to remain stationary in the night sky when other stars show an apparent pattern? Notes: Visual, summary, example, or evidence: Explain the Doppler effect. Notes:  Visual, summary, example, or evidence: Holt McDougal Earth Science Chapter 30 Section 2 pages 851-858 What classification of star is our Sun? Notes: Visual, summary, example, or evidence: 26 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 Explain how a nebula begins forming a star. Notes: Visual, summary, example, or evidence: Why are red stars known as giants? Notes: Visual, summary, example, or evidence: Why are white dwarfs so small? Notes: Visual, summary, example, or evidence: 27 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 Videos If you would like to learn more about this topic you can watch the videos below for more information. (Optional) The Life Cycle of Stars (4:58) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PM9CQDlQI0A “The Life Cycle of Stars.” YouTube. Institute of Physics, 1 Nov. 2012. Web. 02 July 2015. How is a star born, and how does it die? This video will explain the life cycle of a star and show how the different elements found throughout the universe are created. How Do We Measure the Distance of Stars? (9:51) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kyuI4n5ILP8 “How Do We Measure the Distance of Stars?” YouTube. SciShow, 8 Sept. 2014. Web. 02 July 2015. How do astronomers know how far away stars and other objects in the universe are from us on Earth? In this video you will see what techniques are used to measure distances to objects outside of our solar system, and even objects outside of our galaxy. What Are Stars Made Of? | Real Talk With A Scientist (4:37) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lbYYcZtRiXE “What Are Stars Made Of? | Real Talk With A Scientist.” YouTube. DNews, 28 Feb. 2015. Web. 02 July 2015. How do scientists determine what stars are made of? This video will discuss how spectroscopy is used to give a stars elemental “finger print”. 28 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 Elaborate Starquakes Hold Secrets of Stellar Evolution A NASA spacecraft designed to seek out alien worlds has also revealed new details about the structure and evolution of stars, and should help astronomers better understand the future of our own sun, researchers announced. Researchers measured so-called “starquakes,” observing oscillations in the brightness of thousands of stars in much the same way geologists study earthquakes to probe our planet’s interior. NASA’s planethunting Kepler spacecraft served as their tool. The method, called asteroseismology, is helping astronomers characterize stars as never before, researchers said during a news conference at Aarhus University in Denmark. “We are just about to enter a new area in stellar astrophysics,” Thomas Kallinger, of the University of British Columbia and the University of Vienna, said in a statement. “Kepler provides us with data of such good quality that they will change our view of how stars work in detail.” Kepler: A multipurpose instrument NASA launched the Kepler spacecraft in March 2009 with a primary mission of finding Earth-like alien planets. So far, it has identified at least 700 “candidate stars” that could harbor alien worlds. But researchers are also using the spacecraft to analyze the stars such planets may be circling. “Our knowledge of the planets Kepler discovers is only as good as our knowledge of the stars that they orbit,” said Kepler mission co-investigator Natalie Batalha, of San Jose State, during the news conference. As an example of what asteroseismology can reveal, the researchers offered up a star called KIC 11026764. By studying its pulses, astronomers have learned more about this star than they know about virtually any star in the universe aside from our sun. Researchers determined, for example, that KIC 11026764 is 5.94 billion years old and is roughly twice the size of our sun. KIC 11026764 will continue to grow, eventually transforming into a red giant, researchers said. Such information, once gathered for hundreds or thousands of stars, will help astronomers understand stellar structure and evolution in a general sense. And it could help scientists evaluate the chances that alien planets could harbor life, researchers said. Kepler detects alien planets by watching for the telltale dimming in a star’s brightness caused when a planet crosses in front of it from Kepler’s vantage point. The amount of dimming reveals how big the planet is relative to its star — but not its actual size. So knowing the size of the star will tell researchers how big its planets are, if it has any, researchers said. Knowing a star’s age and what stage it is at in its stellar evolution can also help astronomers judge how likely it is for any alien planets around it to harbor life. No planets are known to orbit KIC 11026764, but asteroseismology could theoretically be applied to stars that host planets, researchers said. Red giants and stellar lighthouses, too Astronomers have been using Kepler to characterize the structure and life cycle of 1,000 red giants. Later in its life, the sun will one day become one of these huge, bloated stars. Researchers also reported on the star RR Lyrae. It has been studied for more than 100 years as the first member of an important class of stars used to measure cosmological distances. The brightness of the star oscillates within a well-known period of about 13.5 hours, researchers said. Yet during that period, other small, cyclic changes in amplitude occur — behavior known as the Blazhko effect. The effect has puzzled astronomers for decades, but Kepler data may have yielded a clue to its origin, researchers said. Kepler observations revealed an additional oscillation period that had never been previously detected. The oscillation occurs with a time scale twice as long as the 13.5-hour 29 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 period. The Kepler data indicates the doubling is linked to the Blazhko effect. “Kepler data ultimately will give us a better understanding of the future of our sun and the evolution of our galaxy as a whole,” Daniel Huber, of the University of Sydney, said in a statement. The Kepler spacecraft uses a huge digital camera, known as a photometer, to continuously monitor the brightness of more than 150,000 stars in its field of view as it orbits the sun. The research team using the telescope to study stars is an international collaboration known as the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium. Wall, Mike. “Starquakes Hold Secrets of Stellar Evolution.” LiveScience. TechMedia Network, 26 Oct. 2010. Web. 16 Jan. 2016. . Evaluate Answer the following questions in your notebook using the article above. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. What are “starquakes”? When NASA launched the Kepler spacecraft in 2009, what was its primary mission? How old is the star KIC 11026764? How large is KIC 11026764 compared to our Sun? How does the Kepler spacecraft detect planets? How is the size of a star important in determining the size of the planets that orbit it? What is the next step in our Suns lifecycle? What type of camera does the Kepler spacecraft use to monitor the brightness (magnitude) of stars? Use evidence from the article to explain how you think the Kepler spacecraft data could help researchers learn more about our own Suns evolution and lifecycle. 30 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 LESSON 5.4: THE UNIVERSE Learning Goals for this Credit Communicate scientific information clearly, thoroughly and accurately. Design an investigation or model using appropriate scientific tools, resources and methods. Learning Goals for this Lesson  Describe the characteristics that make up a constellation.  Describe the three main types of galaxies.  Explain how Hubble’s discoveries led to an understanding that the universe is expanding.  List evidence for the big bang theory. Lesson Assignments  Connect to Prior Knowledge  Exploration Activity  Reading and Questions  Videos (optional)  The Expanding Universe Lab  Review Questions Engage Connect to Prior Knowledge Besides stars, what other astronomical objects can be found in the universe? __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ 31 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 Explore Exploration Activity When you look up at the night sky you are able to see many stars without the help of a telescope. Most of what is visible is within 100 light-years of Earth. By using a star chart, you can identify groups of stars that form a pattern. Because of the massive distance between these stars and Earth, the stars you see appear to be fixed in their pattern, when in actuality they are hundreds of light-years away from each other. For example, the constellation Orion appears to be a fixed grouping of stars that form a figure eight pattern as seen in the diagram to the right. In actuality these stars are hundreds of light-years away from each other as seen in the diagram below. These patterns of stars are called constellations. There are 88 constellations that divide up the night sky. Use the star maps on page 974-975 of your textbook and observe the night sky. When observing, the less light pollution around the better. Stay away from street lights and turn off any outdoor/patio lights. Use you observations to answer the questions on the following page. If you are unable to find any constellations because of light pollution or inclement weather you can complete this activity by visiting the following website and searching a virtual sky. https://www.google.com/sky/ 32 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 1. Which season star chart are you using? (Hint: What season is it?) What are the major stars in this chart? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 2. According to the star chart, which constellations are you able to view? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Locate Ursa Minor (the little dipper) on your star chart. Now, search for Ursa Minor in the night sky. Were you able to find Ursa Minor? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Are you able to find Ursa Major (the big dipper) in the night sky? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Are you able to find any of the other constellations from your star map in the night sky? If so, which ones? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 33 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 Explain Complete the reading activity below. In the first box take notes from the reading on the given topic. In the second box explain the reading through a visual, summary, example, or evidence. Reading  Holt McDougal Earth Science Chapter 30 Section 3 pages 859-862 The links below the reading assignments are to the digital version of the textbook. If you wish to complete the reading from your computer, or if you would like to listen to the audio version of the textbook, click the link and sign in using your HMH login issued to you by your teacher. What are constellations made up of? Notes: Visual, summary, example, or evidence: What are some characteristics of a typical galaxy? Notes: Visual, summary, example, or evidence: 34 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 Our Sun is a star in the Milky Way galaxy. How many other stars are predicted to be found in the Milky Way galaxy? Notes: Visual, summary, example, or evidence: What makes quasars different from typical galaxies? Notes:  Visual, summary, example, or evidence: Holt McDougal Earth Science Chapter 30 Section 4 pages 863-866 Summarize the big bang theory. Notes: Visual, summary, example, or evidence: 35 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 How is cosmic background radiation evidence for the big bang? Notes: Visual, summary, example, or evidence: What is dark matter? Notes: Visual, summary, example, or evidence: What is dark energy? Notes: Visual, summary, example, or evidence: 36 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 Videos If you would like to learn more about this topic you can watch the videos below for more information. (Optional) Constellations: Connect the Dots in the Sky! (3:44) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1sZ15SUeS9w “Constellations: Connect the Dots in the Sky!” YouTube. SciShow Kids, 30 Apr. 2015. Web. 07 July 2015. What constellations are easiest to see and how do you spot them? This video will discuss how to find a few of the more easily visible constellations in the night sky. Cycles in the Sky: Crash Course Astronomy (9:29) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=01QWCrZcfE&list=PL8dPuuaLjXtPAJr1ysd5yGIyiSFuh0mIL&index=3 “Cycles in the Sky: Crash Course Astronomy #3.” YouTube. CrashCourse, 29 Jan. 2015. Web. 07 July 2015. Why do the constellations in the sky move in a cycle? Why can’t you find the same constellations in the sky during different seasons? This video will discuss the cycles that we are able to observe in the universe. The Big Bang: Crash Course Big History #1 (14:24) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tq6be-CZJ3w “The Big Bang: Crash Course Big History #1.” YouTube. CrashCourse, 17 Sept. 2014. Web. 08 July 2015. What is the big bang theory? What evidence do scientists have that the big bang occurred around 14 billion years ago? This video will explain what occurred during the big bang, and how we can still observe it. Dark matter: The matter we can’t see – James Gillies (5:34) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HneiEA1B8ks “Dark Matter: The Matter We Can’t See – James Gillies.” YouTube. Ted-Ed, 3 May 2013. Web. 09 July 2015. What exactly is dark matter and how do we know it exists? This video will explain the mystery behind dark matter and what scientists currently know about it. 37 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5

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