Professor Instructions:

1-Choose an argument from the attached textbook.

For example, Argument 4.1 in the textbook: “Rawls’s contractarian Justification for legal rights” which has numbered sentences (those our premises). So, in this argument, there are 25 premises and the last one is the conclusion statement. We only need to choose 2 premises of them. That was just an example to explain how the argument to be chosen and there are more in the attached textbook.

2-Write 5-page essay about the argument chosen following exactly the attached rubric named “The “Pro” and “Con” Essay Format”:

– The rubric includes 2 formats, and you need only to choose one format either “pro” or “con” to follow when you build your essay.

– I think the “pro” essay format is easier to follow.

3-Please, please follow the rubric carefully and focus more on:

-Theoretical observation (this is a broad theoretical groundwork upon which the whole argument rests)

-Significance (this is a concrete example from the world in which these issues play out today).

Explanation & Answer length: 5 pages2 attachmentsSlide 1 of 2

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UNFORMATTED ATTACHMENT PREVIEW

The “Pro” and “Con” Essay Format Pro Essay (5 pages) Pro Introduction: The author (fill in) argues for the following controversial conclusion: (give conclusion). He supports this conclusion with the following premises: (a) (give first premise) and (b) (give second premise). This essay will examine each premise in the light of objectors and then defend the author from these objections. The possible objection to the first premise (give the objection(s)). Reply to the first objection (give pointed reply). The possible objection to the second premise (give the objection(s)). Reply to the second objection (give pointed reply). Theoretical observation (this is a broad theoretical groundwork upon which the whole argument rests) Significance (this is a concrete example from the world in which these issues play out today). Con Essay (5 pages) Con Introduction: The author (fill in) argues for the following controversial conclusion (give conclusion). He bases his argument on two objectionable premises: (a) (give first premise) and (b) (give second premise). It will be the contention of this essay that these premises are mistaken thus rendering the conclusion unproven. Objection to the first premise (give objection). Counter-refutation by the author (imagine how the author would respond to your objection) Counter-refutation against the author (show how the author’s response is inadequate) Objection to the second premise (give objection). Counter-refutation by the author (imagine how the author would respond to your objection) Counter-refutation against the author (show how the author’s response is inadequate) Theoretical observation (this is a broad theoretical groundwork upon which the whole argument rests) Significance (this is a concrete example from the world in which these issues play out today). Natural Human Rights A Theory This timely book by internationally regarded scholar of ethics and social/political philosophy Michael Boylan focuses on the history, application, and significance of human rights in the West and in China. Boylan engages the key current philosophical debates prevalent in human rights discourse today and draws them together to argue for the existence of natural, universal human rights. Arguing against the grain of mainstream philosophical beliefs, Boylan asserts that there is continuity between human rights and natural law and that human beings require basic, essential goods for minimum action. These include food, clean water and sanitation, clothing, shelter, and protection from bodily harm, including basic healthcare. The achievement of this goal, Boylan demonstrates, will require significant resource allocation and creative methods of implementation involving public and private institutions. Using the classroom-tested dynamic approach of combining technical argument with four fictional narratives about human rights, the book invites readers to engage with the most important aspects of the discipline. MICHAEL BOYLAN is Professor of Philosophy and Chair of the Philosophy Department at Marymount University. He is author of twenty-six books and more than a hundred articles. His monograph A Just Society (2004) was recently the subject of an edited volume featuring fourteen authors from eight countries entitled Morality and Justice: Reading Boylan’s “A Just Society.” He has served on professional and governmental policy committees and was a Fellow at the Center for American Progress and a program presenter at the Brookings Institution. He is an international figure who has been an invited speaker at a number of prominent universities outside the United States, including Oxford, Cambridge, Manchester, University College London, Trinity College (Dublin), University College (Dublin), the Sorbonne, the Katholic University of Leuven, University of Oslo, University ******ebook converter DEMO Watermarks******* of Copenhagen, Cologne University, Bochum University, Twente and Delft Universities, Valparaiso University (Chile), University of Sydney, University of Melbourne, Australian National University, and Charles Sturt University (Waga Waga, Australia). He is also a published novelist and poet. ******ebook converter DEMO Watermarks******* Natural Human Rights A Theory Michael Boylan Marymount University, Virginia ******ebook converter DEMO Watermarks******* 32 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013-2473, USA Cambridge University Press is part of the University of Cambridge. It furthers the University’s mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education, learning, and research at the highest international levels of excellence. www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9781107664210 © Michael Boylan 2014 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2014 Printed in the United States of America A catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication data Boylan, Michael, 1952– Natural human rights : a theory / Michael Boylan. pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-107-02985-9 (hardback) – ISBN 978-1-107-66421-0 (pbk.) 1. Human rights – Philosophy. 2. Human rights – Cross-cultural studies. 3. Natural law. 4. Natural law – Philosophy. I. Title. jc571.b6752 2014 323.01–dc23 2013041798 ******ebook converter DEMO Watermarks******* ISBN 978-1-107-02985-9 Hardback ISBN 978-1-107-66421-0 Paperback Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party Internet websites referred to in this publication and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. ******ebook converter DEMO Watermarks******* For my family: Rebecca, Arianne, Seán, and Éamon ******ebook converter DEMO Watermarks******* Contents Preface Acknowledgments Part One: Conceptualizing Human Rights Overture: “The Spotted Butterfly” 1 How Do We Talk about Human Rights? 2 A Short History of Human Rights in the West 3 A Short History of Human Rights in China Part Two: Justifications for Human Rights Adagio: “Double Talk” 4 Legal Justifications 5 Interest Justifications 6 Agency Justifications 7 Ontology, Justice, and Human Rights Part Three: Applications of Human Rights Scherzo: “Straight to the Top” 8 War Rape 9 Political Speech 10 LGBT Rights Rondo: “The Game” Afterword: The Politics of Change Glossary Bibliography Index ******ebook converter DEMO Watermarks******* Preface I have fashioned this book as a symphony. There are several forms of the symphony, but in this depiction I have sought a literal and an artistic understanding of this word. Sym-phonia (συμφωνία) means bringing together various sounds or voices into a coherent presentation. So literally, the etymology refers to creating a harmony of voices, and since there are many voices in the cacophony of human rights discourse, I have taken it upon myself to present many of these voices and the patterns they convey and then to forge what I think is an account that best addresses critical problems: the melody of natural human rights. The second meaning of the word refers to the artistic way I try to do this. My composition technique combines what I have termed “direct discourse philosophy” with “fictive narrative philosophy.”1 Direct discourse philosophy is what most people in the West think of when they consider philosophy. The materials are the claim (conclusion) and the reasons (premises that interact via an inferential logical structure). Most of this book is presented via direct discourse philosophy. However, there are a few variations to the themes via fictive narrative philosophy, as well. These come in the form of four original short stories that introduce each movement in the composition. A musical symphony begins with an overture. This sets up the various themes that will be explored in the composition. In this case various inputs from the philosophical and political science literature are lightly set out in terms of background conditions in the current world affairs (Chapter 1). The overture presents the themes that will be developed. These themes include the traditions in the West and in China (Chapters 2 and 3) so that a more inclusive vision of the setting of human rights and natural law might be presented. In the process of setting out these histories, I have sought to give a more comprehensive shared community worldview account by melding direct discourse philosophy of various eras with glimpses of literature from that time. The addition of brief literary overviews works in counterpoint to the direct philosophy. This is a common practice among those ******ebook converter DEMO Watermarks******* who compose histories. Next is the adagio. This is a rather more slowly moving time signature. In the very brief period of my life in which I tried composing classical music I would always pay attention to the adagio. It would reveal the essence of what was being put forth. Here as well, I examine what I feel are the principal theories that would justify human rights (Chapters 4, 5, and 6). Each is brought forward with its strengths and weaknesses. Obviously, I believe my own theory of agency-based human rights is the best choice. Therefore, I end the adagio movement with a strong presentation of my own version of natural human rights. There is then an elision (Chapter 7) presenting my theory on how people actually accept new normative theories and the ontological commitments that various approaches entail. The elision leads to the scherzo (Chapters 8, 9, and 10), which is

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