sinkholes are formed from: Question 1 options: lithification of sediments frost wedging of sedimentary rocks the collapsing ceilings of underground caverns intrusion of magma divergent plate boundaries Question 2 (1 point) Which of the following is the smallest sediment size? Question 2 options: clay silt sand pebble cobble Question 3 (1 point) Karst landforms (caverns, sinkholes, speleothems, etc.) are formed by: Question 3 options: frost wedging of shale oxidation of sulfides exfoliation of granite salt crystal wedging of sandstone dissolution of limestone Question 4 (1 point) Sandstone with cross-bedding most likely formed in which type of depositional environment? Question 4 options: the foot of a mountain a swamp a lake basin a desert with sand dunes a steep mountain slope Question 5 (1 point) Which of the following is a sedimentary rock that would be likely to form a cap rock at the top of a mesa in a desert environment? Question 5 options: shale slate gneiss sandstone granite Question 6 (1 point) Which of the following rocks is most susceptible to chemical weathering by dissolution? Question 6 options: gneiss limestone granite slate shale Question 7 (1 point) Where would you be most likely to find gneiss? Question 7 options: deep in the folded rocks of the Himalaya Mountains next to the mid-Atlantic ocean ridge in the Sierra-Nevada Mountains in a composite cone volcano of the Cascade Mountains on one of the Hawaiian Islands Question 8 (1 point) Most metamorphic rocks on Earth are formed by _______, which is associated with _______. Question 8 options: solution metamorphism, chemical weathering regional metamorphism, mountain building contact metamorphism, mountain building contact metamorphism, magma intrusion regional metamorphism, magma intrusion Question 9 (1 point) Which of the following is an example of a metamorphic rock? Question 9 options: basalt sandstone limestone gneiss shale Question 10 (1 point) Absolute dating of rocks is be achieved by: Question 10 options: determining the ratio of radioactive parent isotopes to stable daughter isotopes the law of superposition identifying angular unconformities in the rock identifying fossils contained in sedimentary layers identifying large mineral crystals in the rock Question 11 (1 point) Which best describes half life? Question 11 options: Half time from the end of a radioactive sample being destroyed Time for half of a radioactive sample to decay Half of the time between a decay Time for half of a radioactive atom to be created Time for half of a single radioactive atom to decay Question 12 (1 point) In the image above, the number of half-lives elapsed is on the x-axis and the relative proportion of daughter isotopes is on the y-axis. What is the proportion of daughter isotopes after 2 half-lives have elapsed? Question 12 options: 0.50 0.33 0.75 1.0 0.25 Question 13 (1 point) In the image above, the number of half-lives elapsed is on the x-axis and the relative proportion of daughter isotopes is on the y-axis. If you have a sample where the half-life of the parent isotope is 704 million years, and 2 half-lives have elapsed, aproximately how old is the sample? Question 13 options: 14 billion years 704 million years 2 million years 352 million years 1.4 billion years Question 14 (1 point) When mineral “X” originally formed in a granite, there is 100% of the unstable radiometric parent material and 0% of the stable daughter material. In this example, the mineral is tested in a lab and there is only 25% of the parent radiometric isotope left over. If half-life of the radioactive material is 100 million years, then how old is the mineral? Question 14 options: 400 million years 25 million years 200 million years 100 million years 50 million years Question 15 (1 point) Which of these would likely produce the LEAST reliable absolute age of a rock from radiometric dating techniques? Question 15 options: Intrusive igneous rock Sedimentary rock Extrusive igneous rock Low-grade metamorphic rocks High-grade metamorphic rocks SCI 205e: Physical Geology Application Exercise — Stratigraphic Sequences A big part of geology is putting geological events in order to tell the story of Earth history at a given location. The diagrams in this section of the lab show rock layers as you might see them in a cliff or road cut. Your job is to put the sequences of events in order to account for the observable patterns in the rocks. First consider the example below: The sequence of events that lead to this pattern from the oldest event (1) to the most recent event (8) would be something like this: 1. Rock z was deposited 2. Rock y was deposited 3. Rock x was deposited 4. Layers z, y, and x were tilted 5. Erosion produced unconformity t 6. Ro

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