Vivian Hamilton Monday Feb 18 at 12:08amManage Discussion Entry        Nephrolithiasis is also known as kidney stones. This is typically a hard deposit of material that forms insides the kidneys. The deposits are made of minerals and salts and they can affect any part of the urinary tract. It is common for the stones to form when the urine becomes concentrated which helps make it easier for the minerals to crystallize and stick together forming the stones. Passing these stones is known to be very painful (Mayo Clinic, 2018).        More than 5% of adults are affected by kidney stones in the US and most of these stones are calcium with an association to metabolic disorders. Some risk factors for getting kidney stones could be related to a genetic tendency, obesity, and diet (Worcester & Coe, 2009). The change in diet is believed to be a major factor in the rise of kidney stone occurrence. There appears to be a proportional relationship between the increase in kidney stones and the rate of obesity. The obesity increase is thought to be related to an increase in the consumption of starchy foods and corn. The growing consumption of fast-food and high fructose corn syrup is also related to this change. Other changes to diet include a decrease in the amount of fluid that is consumed (Romero, Akpinar, & Assimos, 2010). Having a digestive disease and surgery like a gastric bypass can also contribute to kidney stones (Mayo Clinic, 2018). Knowing the kind of diet that is commonly found in the US, it is no surprise that the US is affected by kidney stones and that this prevalence is increasing. ReferenceMayo Clinic. (2018). Kidney Stones. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/kidney-stones/symptoms-causes/syc-20355755Romero, V., Akpinar, H., & Assimos, D. (2010). Kidney stones: a global picture of prevalence, incidence, ad associated risk factors. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2931286/Worcester, E. & Coe, F. (2009). Nephrolithiasis. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2518455/