The Newton’s First Law Lab requires you to do four experiments. You will set up these experiments using parts from the lab kit you ordered.

To start open up the word or pdf document below. This is what you will turn in.

The Lab Kit came with a study guide that has the experiments in it. To see a visual of the experiment set up and the experiment itself check out the videos below:

Newton 1: Experiment 1 https://youtu.be/ouz7wbtDnoQ

Newton 1: Experiment 2 https://youtu.be/XLSbe7rTz5Y

Newton 1: Experiment 3 https://youtu.be/pm0FHzgDZSM

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1S0gmTnmxOxixCz29z…

https://drive.google.com/file/d/14u91a26fkdtXZGWT0…this is 2

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1S0gmTnmxOxixCz29z…this is 310 attachmentsSlide 1 of 10

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UNFORMATTED ATTACHMENT PREVIEW

Physics 210: Newton’s First Law In this lab you will be using the lab kit study guide that came with your kit. See the picture below: This lab will consist of four experiments. To start this lab state Newton’s First Law in the space below: _________________________________________________________ Experiment 1 (Objects remain at rest): The first experiment you will do can be found on page 5 of the study guide. Use the tools in your kit to set up the experiment as stated in part 1 of the experiment. Once you have your experiment set up take a picture of your set up and embed the image below. Embed picture of set-up here: Process of Science Start off the experiment by making a prediction. This prediction is your Hypothesis about the outcome of the experiment. Hypothesis: What do you predict will happen if the ramp is pulled out from under the cart? __________________________________________________________________________ Experiment: 1. Do experiment 1 Result: What happens to the cart when the ramp is removed? Analyze: Does the cart follow Newton’s first law for a body at rest? Make sure to use the concept of Newton’s First Law in your answer. Experiment 2(Force to move objects from rest) The second experiment you will do is found on page 6 of the Lab Kit Study Guide. Your first step is to go to page 6 and set up Experiment 2 for Newton’s First Law of Motion. Once you have it set up take a picture of your set up and embed it below: Embed picture of set-up Process of Science Hypothesis: In this experiment you will measure the Force it takes to start to the cart. You will also measure the force it takes to keep it moving. For your hypothesis circle one of the choices in the statement below. 1. The force to start the cart be (the same/ less than / more than) the force to keep the cart in motion. Experiment: • Do experiment 2 Results: In the table below, record your values of the force for starting the cart and keeping the cart in motion. Trial 1 2 3 4 Average Value of Trials Force to start the Cart (N) Force to keep cart moving (N) In the table below, record your values of the force for starting the cart slowly vs. quickly. Trial 1 2 3 4 Average Value of Trials Force to Start Object Slowly Force to Start Object Quickly Analyze: Which takes more force, to start an object moving from rest or to keep it moving? (Explain your answer using the stating the concept of Newton’s First Law in your answer) Experiment 3(Objects in motion remain in motion) The third experiment you will do is on page 7 of the Lab Kit Study Guide. In this experiment you will test the following statement: “Do objects in motion really continue in motion unless acted upon by an external force?” Start by setting up the experiment. Once you have it set up take a picture of your set up and embed it below: Embed picture of set-up Process of Science Hypothesis: Write down your prediction about what will happen to the cart when it collides with the edge of the ramp. ____________________________________________________________________________ Experiment: • • Do experiment 3 Repeat experiment 3 with the 200g mass Results: 1. Do the two masses follow Newton’s first law for a body at rest? Explain your answer using the stating the concept of Newton’s First Law in your answer. 2. Compare your observations of the 100g and 200g masses. Did they react exactly the same? • What was similar for both the 100g and 200g? • What was different for the 100g and 200g? Experiment 4(Force to change speed and direction) The fourth and last experiment you will do for this lab is on page 7 of the Lab Kit Study Guide. In this experiment you will test the following statement: ‘In this experiment you will measure the amount of force it takes to accelerate and change the direction of an object’ Process of Science Hypothesis: Predict the outcome by circling your choice in the two statements below. • Does it take (the same/ more/ less ) force to accelerate an object compared to maintaining its initial speed? • Does it take (the same/ more/ less ) force to change the direction of an object compared to maintaining its initial speed? Experiment: • Do experiment 4 Results: In the table below record the maximum value on the spring scale (Max Force) for each of the two experiments. Trial 1 2 3 4 Acceleration (Max Force) Changing Direction (Max Force) Analyze: 1. Does it take more force to accelerate and object or to maintain its initial speed? Explain why your answer using the concept of Newton’s First Law. 2. Does it take more force to change the direction of an object or maintain its current direction? Explain why your answer using the concept of Newton’s First Law. TABLE OF CONTENTS: 1 1 INTRODUCTION SCIENTIFIC METHOD NEWTON’S FIRST LAW OF MOTION Objects at rest Remain at Rest: Experiment 1 Force to Move Objects From Rest: Experiment 2 Objects in Motion Remain in Motion: Experiment 3 Force to change Speed or Direction of a Moving Object: Experiment 4 NEWTON’S SECOND LAW OF MOTION Force and Acceleration: Experiment 5… Force and Mass: Experiment 6 NEWTON’S THIRD LAW OF MOTION. Action and Reaction: Experiment 7. NEWTON’S LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION. Pendulum: Experiment 8……. Falling Objects: Experiment 9. WORK AND ENERGY First Class Lever: Experiment 10. Second Class Lever: Experiment 11. Third Class Lever: Experiment 12. Balance: Experiment 13. Inclined Plane: Experiment 14. PULLEYS.. Fixed Pulley: Experiment 15.. Moveable Pulley: Experiment 16 Block and Tackle Pulley: Experiment 17. TEACHING TIPS FOR YOUNG CHILDREN FURTHER STUDY… 1 1 2 .2 N N 2. 2 2 29 © 2019 Home Science Tools. All Rights reserved. Page 3 of 30 1.800.860.6272 | www.homesciencetools.com TABLE OF CONTENTS: 1 1 INTRODUCTION SCIENTIFIC METHOD NEWTON’S FIRST LAW OF MOTION Objects at rest Remain at Rest: Experiment 1 Force to Move Objects From Rest: Experiment 2 Objects in Motion Remain in Motion: Experiment 3 Force to change Speed or Direction of a Moving Object: Experiment 4 NEWTON’S SECOND LAW OF MOTION Force and Acceleration: Experiment 5… Force and Mass: Experiment 6 NEWTON’S THIRD LAW OF MOTION. Action and Reaction: Experiment 7. NEWTON’S LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION. Pendulum: Experiment 8……. Falling Objects: Experiment 9. WORK AND ENERGY First Class Lever: Experiment 10. Second Class Lever: Experiment 11. Third Class Lever: Experiment 12. Balance: Experiment 13. Inclined Plane: Experiment 14. PULLEYS.. Fixed Pulley: Experiment 15.. Moveable Pulley: Experiment 16 Block and Tackle Pulley: Experiment 17. TEACHING TIPS FOR YOUNG CHILDREN FURTHER STUDY… 1 1 2 .2 N N 2. 2 2 29 © 2019 Home Science Tools. All Rights reserved. Page 3 of 30 1.800.860.6272 | www.homesciencetools.com 1 NEWTON’S FIRST LAW OF MOTION Newton’s first law of motion states that “Every body remains in a state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless acted upon by an external force.” The first part of this law means that an object that is not moving will not start moving unless acted upon by a force (a push or pull) that is separate from the object. The second part of this law means that once an object is moving in a straight line at a constant speed, it will not change direction or speed unless acted upon by an external force. You can test this physical law with the following experiments. EXPERIMENTS OBJECTS REMAIN AT REST: EXPERIMENT 1 Problem: The problem statement for this experiment is this: “Do objects at rest really remain at rest unless acted upon by an external force?” Gather data: Think about the problem. What else do you need to know? Try to think of an example where you’ve seen Newton’s first law of motion at work. 1. Set the wooden ramp on a table with about 12” of the ramp extending over the edge of the table. Place the Hall’s cart on the part of the ramp that is over the table. Cart Table Hypothesis: The cart at this point is in a state of rest. What do you predict will happen if the ramp is pulled out Ramp from under the cart? Write down this Pull this way hypothesis in your science notebook. 2. Perform the experiment: Standing to one side, quickly jerk the ramp out from underneath the Hall’s cart. Try this 4-5 times. Record your observations. 3. Analyze your results: What happens to the cart when the ramp is ro Was your hypothesis correct? Does the cart follow Newton’s first few year body at rest? Record your results and conclusions in your science notebook Conclusions: When you quickly pull the ramp out from under the cart, the cart falls to the table. It does not move with the ramp. Because the cart is at rest, it continues at rest while you move the ramp, consistent with Newton’s first law. Diabte roniod Page 5 of 30 1 800 860.6272 www.homesciencetools.com FORCE TO MOVE OBJECTS FROM REST: EXPERIMENT 2 Now let’s determine how the force required to start moving a stationary object compares to the force to keep an object moving. Our problem statement is this: “Is the force required to move an object from rest different from the force required to keep an object moving?” 1. Cut a piece of string about 8″ long. Tie one end to the front of the Hall’s cart and tie a loop in the free end. 2. Put the 200 gram (g) mass in the Hall’s cart. 3. Push the cart back and forth on a table Weight (200g) and think about the problem statement. Do Attach string here you think the force required to move the Scale cart from rest is the same, less than, or greater than the force required to keep Cart the cart moving? Write down this hypothesis in your science notebook. 4. Zero the spring scale and attach the hook on the spring scale to the string loop on the cart. If your cart doesn’t have a string loop, make one using a paper clip. 5. Tug on the spring scale several times to start the cart moving from rest. Note and record the spring scale reading each time. 6. Now jerk on the spring scale several times to rapidly start the cart moving from rest. Note and record the spring scale readings. 7. Finally, pull the cart across a table or floor at a constant speed several times. Note and record the spring scale readings each time. Try this step again, pulling the cart at a faster speed and record your results. 8. Analyze your results. Which takes more force, to start an object moving from rest or to keep an object moving? Which takes more force, to start an object moving slowly or to start it moving quickly? Was your hypothesis correct? Does the cart follow Newton’s first law for a body at rest? Record your results and conclusions in your science notebook. The tendency of objects at rest to stay at rest or moving objects to continue moving is called inertia. More force is required to overcome the inertia of a body at rest than to maintain the inertia of a moving object. Without friction, no force would be required to keep an object in motion. OBJECTS IN MOTION REMAIN IN MOTION: EXPERIMENT 3 We can also test Newton’s first law with respect to objects in motion. Our problem statement is this: “Do objects in motion really continue in motion unless acted upon by an external force?” 1. Place the wooden ramp on the floor. 2. Tape a piece of cardboard over the hole in the Hall’s cart. 3. Put the 100 g mass on top of the cardboard as illustrated. What do you think will happen to the 100 g mass when you push the cart so it collides with the edge of the ramp? Record Original your hypothesis. direction 4. Gently push the cart so it collides with the edge of the ramp. You must push the cart gently enough so the mass does not move until the cart hits the ramp. Repeat 4-5 times. 5. Analyze your results. What happens to the 100 g mass when the cart is acted upon by the external force of the ramp? Was your hypothesis correct? Does the mass follow Newton’s first law? Explain why. You can repeat this experiment using the 200 g mass or even a stack of washers. When the cart is pushed toward the ramp, the cart and mass move in a straight line until the cart hits the ramp. The cart stops, but the inertia of the moving mass keeps the mass moving forward. This is why people not wearing seat belts are often thrown through the front windshield in auto accidents. Change directie FORCE TO CHANGE SPEED OR DIRECTION OF A MOVING OBJECT FORCE TO CHANGE SPEED OR DIRECTION OF A MOVING OBJECT XPERENT 4 This final experiment with Newton’s first law has to do with the force required to change the speed or direction of a moving object. Our problem statement is this: “Does it take more force to change the speed or direction of a moving object than it Ramp does to maintain the initial speed of Weight (2009) the object?” 1. Use the same setup as in Experiment 2 with the cart, 200 g Cart mass, string, and spring scale. © 2019 Home Science Tools. All Rights reserved. Page 7 of 30 1.800.860.6272 | www.homesciencetools.com 2. Think about the force required to accelerate or increase the speed of the cart once it is in motion. Will this force be greater or less than the force required to maintain the initial speed of the cart? Think about the force required to change the direction of the cart once it is in motion. Will this force be greater or less than the force required to maintain the initial speed of the cart? Predict your answers to these questions and write them down as hypotheses. 3. Start the cart moving at a slow speed by pulling on the spring scale. Then quickly pull harder to accelerate the speed of the cart. Repeat this several times while reading the spring scale. Record the maximum force reading on the spring scale each time. 4. Now experiment with changing the direction of the cart. Again start the cart rolling slowly by pulling on the spring scale and then pull the scale in a wide arc to change the direction of the cart. Try this several times, changing direction as quickly as you can without tipping the cart over. Record the maximum force required to change the direction each time. 5. Analyze your results. Which takes more force, to accelerate the cart or to maintain its initial speed? Does it take more force to change the direction of the cart or to maintain the direction of the cart? Were your hypotheses correct? Is the force required to change the speed or direction of a moving object consistent with Newton’s first law? Record your results and conclusions in your notebook. You will find that more force is required to increase the speed of a moving object than to maintain the initial speed. More force is also required to change the direction of a moving object than to maintain the initial direction. Consistent with Newton’s first law, it akes an external force to change the speed or direction of an object moving at a constant speed or in a straight line. VEWTON’S SECOND LAW OF MOTION Newton’s second law of motion states, “The force required to accelerate an object s proportional to the mass of the object and the acceleration given it.” This means he force required to increase the speed of an object quickly (large acceleration) will be reater than the force required to increase the speed of an object slowly (small cceleration). Likewise, the force required to accelerate a large mass will be greater han the force required to accelerate a small mass. ewton’s second law can be expressed by the formula, orce = mass • acceleration, or F = ma EDUCATION SPRING BALANCE NEWTON -100 200 -300 400 500 To EDUCATION SPRING BALANCE USE METAL TAD MILJ NEWTON -100

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