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Name: _________________ October Sky Project Lab 2: Aerodynamics and Stability __________________________________________________________________________ Theory: ● How do fins of a rocket keep a rocket stable? ● What are the four aerodynamic forces that act on a rocket in flight ● What parameters of a rocket can you change to increase stability. Construction: ● Designing your fins. ● Cutting your body tubes ● Marking your fins and launch lug ______________________________________________________________________________ I. The Aerodynamic Forces A. In the space below, draw a sample rocket and label the four aerodynamic forces that act on it. Then explain what they are and why they arise. 1 Name: _________________ B. The stability of the rocket depends on something called a restoring force. 1. Generally speaking, what is a restoring force? 2. What “special force” causes the restoring force that acts on a rocket? 3. Describe how this restoring force and the rocket’s fins combine to correct the rocket’s motion. C. Center of Pressure vs. Center of Gravity. 1. What is the Center of Pressure of a rocket? 2. What is the Center of Gravity? 2 Name: _________________ 3. How might you find the center of gravity of a rocket? 4. Where is the center of pressure likely to be located (near)? 5. Explain in careful detail using aerodynamic forces why the center of gravity must be above the center of pressure to ensure a stable rocket. 6. Open up your OpenRocket file from the previous lab. What is your stability coefficient? What are three different ways in which you can increase your stability coefficient and write them down below. 7. What is a hyperstable rocket, and what are the dangers of one? 3 Name: _________________ II. Aerodynamic Drag A. The Reynolds Number 1. The drag that an object experiences comes down to two different kinds of forces: inertial forces and viscous forces. Please describe each of these forces and where they originate. \ 2. The Reynolds number describes the relative importance of these two sets of forces. Write down the formula for the Reynolds number below. 3. What kinds of Reynolds numbers are we interested in when looking at the aerodynamics of rockets, High or Low Reynolds numbers? Why? 4. The equation for the drag force at high Reynolds number is D = ½ Cρv2. Explain each variable in this equation and how you would find the value of it. 5. Mach Number: What is it? 4 Name: _________________ B. Two kinds of drag: In aerodynamics there are three distinct types of drag that a body experiences. Understanding each one of them can give us insight into what to change about a rocket to get the best aerodynamic performance. Clearly explain each type of drag below and for each one explain two things you could change to reduce that type of drag. 1. Pressure Drag: 2. Friction Drag: C. The Drag of Rocket Components. 1. Nose Cones: Name and draw three different nose cone shapes and compare their drag. 2. Fins: Name and draw three different fin styles and compare their drag. 3. Fin cross sections: There are three main fin cross sections. What are they? Compare their relative drag. 5 Name: _________________ III. Construction A. Body Tubes 1. Using the measurements you picked from your openrocket design, gather the amount of body tubing necessary to build your rocket. You may need to use an exacto knife to cut a body tube down to the correct size. 2. You must figure out a way to evenly mark your fin locations. This is one of the essential keys of stability. Once you have selected a technique, get approval from Scott. After carefully making your marks, use the door jam method to make straight lines perpendicular to the base of your tube. 3. When you are done, initial your body tubes. B. Nose Cone Selection 1. There are several NC-60 and NC-80 nose cone shapes available to choose from (ogive, elliptical, power series, etc). Pick the one that most closely resembles the shape you chose for your rocket design. C. Fin Design 1. Using a piece of graph paper, sketch out the precise design your group has chosen for your fins using exact measurements and angles. Due to constraints with the laser-cutter at least one dimension of each fin must be less than 3in. 2. Next week, we will be laser-cutting these designs. You will need to cut one of the basswood sheets to the minimum size needed to layout and cut all of your fins. Don’t cut yourself anymore wood than is necessary. 3. Once you’ve completed all these steps, gather your materials together with painters tape and store. 6 Name: _________________ Post Lab 1. Watch one of the following movies (do not pick one you’ve already seen!) and write a 500 word synopsis in the space below discussing what you learned and what struck you. a. Apollo 13 b. First Man c. The Last Man on the Moon d. October Sky e. Contact f. Hidden Figures 7

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