Pinoy Youth’s Preference for KPOP (Korean Pop) music: How does it affect their taste for OPM (Original Pilipino Music)? CHAPTER IV RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This particular research study aims to determine the Pinoy Youth’s Preference for Korean Pop Music and how does it affect their taste for Original Pilipino Music (OPM).
Regarding this, the researchers will seek to know whether factors like rhythm and music composition of Korean Popular Music really affect the Pinoy teenagers’ preference towards Original Pilipino Music In addition, the researchers want to distinguish the respondents (female residents of the University of the Philippines Cebu College Dormitory and other chosen students in UPVCC) view toward Korean Pop music as well as their outlook in the Original Pilipino Music (OPM).
Moreover, this study would identify if the students’ music preference would affect their sense of nationalism. In doing this, the researchers gathered information which will help in achieving the goal of the researchers. This would serve as support to the current research study. RESEARCH ENVIRONMENT This study will be conducted at the University of the Philippines Cebu College (UPVCC). The location will be the University of the Philippines Campus in Gorordo Avenue Lahug Cebu City. The place is accessible to the researchers for they would not spend much time travelling.
The researchers choose the locale since one of the researchers is currently residing in the dormitory and because it is more accessible in terms of distributing the survey questionnaires. RESEARCH PARTICIPANTS The major concern of choosing respondents would be the residents staying in the UP dormitory which consists of 9 rooms with 53 student residents but the researchers respondents are on to chosen female dormers only. On the other hand, there will also be some respondents who do not stay in the dormitory but still female students in the University of the Philippines Cebu College.
RESEARCH INSTRUMENT Simple random sampling was done for the sample selection. This sampling method is conducted where each member of a population has an equal opportunity to become part of the sample. As all members of the population have an equal chance of becoming a research participant, this is said to be the most efficient sampling procedure. The researchers will list down all the names of the female respondents. After that, the researchers will use the fishbowl technique and will randomly pick 15 out of these 32 respondents including the chosen respondents not staying in the dormitory.
The researchers decided to use this fishbowl technique since all the respondents are females and would only choose by means of “draw by lots”. This method involves the selection of the sample at random from the sampling frame through the use of random number tables (Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill, 2003). Numbers were assigned for each respondent in the master list. These numbers were written on pieces of paper and drawn from a box; the process was repeated until the sample size was reached. This research study will use a survey questionnaire as a research tool.
The survey will be arranged basing on the factors that affect the respondents’ preference toward Korean Pop Music and how it affects their taste to Original Pilipino Music (OPM). There are 4 factors that the researchers consider. These are the respondents’ outlook towards the performers of the Korean Pop Music and Original Pilipino Music, the rhythm of music that K-pop and OPM music brings, as well as music’s composition and the message being delivered by both K-pop and OPM music. Every factor will be stated in a form of table.
The researchers prepared an introductory part for survey consisting of 3 questions involving whether the respondents’ are into K-pop music or OPM Music. One of the questions determines what music does the respondent like from the two choices, the Korean Pop Music or the Original Pilipino Music. The second question is just related to a supporting answer to question number one in which the choices pertains to the time that the respondents often listens to her preferred music. Below the introductory question will be 2 tables, one for K-pop music and the other one is for OPM music. The two tables are divided into 5 columns.
These columns would serve as the respondents’ ratings from 1 to 5 and 5 as the most appreciated towards K-pop and OPM Music. Each factor consists of 3 phrases related to the factor revealed. As mentioned earlier, one factor that affects the respondents’ preference toward music is the performers. The second factor involves the pattern of beats that the music contains. The third one relates to the lyrics of the music and how the message is being delivered to the listeners or audience. The researchers provide a survey questionnaire with a letter of permission to the chosen respondents.
If the respondents approved the letter, they would answer the questionnaire automatically. If not, the researchers would pick another respondent and will answer directly to the survey questionnaire after approval. The respondents would just directly answer the questions with no time limit. After the respondents have completed answering the questions, the questionnaire will be collected. DATA ANALYSIS The researchers would then tally the results obtained. The results will then be tabulated. After that, thorough analysis should be done and the results would then be interpreted.
This will be done by calculating the results using the Chi-Square Test for Independence. The researchers decided to use this type of test for it is applicable whether there is a relationship between two variables. In this study, the relationship between Pinoy Youths’ Preference towards K-pop Music and OPM Music is being described. This type of test actually involves statistics. As said earlier, the chi-square test is used to determine whether there is a “significant difference between the normal frequencies and the experimental frequencies in one or more categories.
The Chi-Square statistic compares the tallies or counts of categorical responses between two or more independent groups”(Maben, 2009). In so doing, the researchers would be helped by the Chi-Square test in determining Pinoy Youth’s Preference for Korean Pop Music and how does it affect their taste for Original Pilipino Music (OPM). CHAPTER III THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Several theories have been gathered and analyzed in this research study to help determine the factors causing an individual to affect his/her attitude due to the type of music he/she prefers.
A theory of Rudolf Radocy and David Boyle (2003) contends that musical preference is “more than an interaction of inherent musical characteristics and individual psychological and social variables” (p. 371). They cite the work of Abeles (1980) who, after a thorough review of the pertinent literature, concluded that personality factors and emotional states were related to preference, but not in a clear cut aspect. Moreover, Radocy and Boyle (2003) stress out that music preference might be influenced by the factors of environment such as institutions, experiences, group gatherings, self-concept, mass media and among other things.
Another theorist, Warren Prince (1972) developed a paradigm for music listening with a major premise that “a listener is capable of more than one response pattern and more than one type of listening experience” (p. 446). His paradigm is proposed as an initial effort to build “a framework based on crucial decisions on what variables and what relationships between variables are to be investigated” (p. 446). In addition, his paradigm gives a graphic representation of the variables in the listening process.
Prince’s paradigm has three categories; the listener variables, response patterns and a group of learning process variables. The variables in these three categories are interrelated indicating causal relationships. Below is the diagram interpreting his paradigm. Figure 1. 5 Figure 1. 5 shows the flow of Prince’s Music Listening Paradigm with the (1) listener variables that are located at the top which are directed through the listener’s general state of attention, (2) response patterns at the center and the learning process variables are located at the bottom, and mostly has the function of feedback into the responses.
Moreover, the reason why the listener variable is located on the top is that, it determines its behavior according to the influence that the environment is causing it. From here, these listeners can be able to provide their own response patterns (e. g. music materials) from what they get from the environment’s influence. This then makes the learning process variables take place giving the outcome and effect from what the listeners prefer. Another music listening preference theory was developed by Albert LeBlanc (1982). LeBlanc’s theory conceptualizes musical judgment as a hierarchical process.
LeBlanc’s music listening preference theory covers a whole system of input information. He explains that a person’s decision on music listening preference must follow “unavoidable time sequence. ” He asserts that music is differently processed at different levels, which one involves personality characteristics. When Prince built his music listening theory, he considered his theory as an initial paradigm. He mentioned that “an initial paradigm represents theoretical considerations not yet confirmed even though they may be supported strongly by research evidence. A later paradigm or theoretical schema may emerge as a result of many studies based on the initial paradigm. ” (p. 446) LeBlanc (1991) stated that his model has a different focus (music listening preference) from that of Prince (music listening). However, LeBlanc’s music listening preference theory can be classified as a later paradigm of a more specifically developed theoretical model for music listening paradigm. The theory developed by Robert Walker (1980) similarly characterizes musical preference as only indirectly related to personality and/or attitude factors.
Walker asserts that liking is directly influence by musical complexity. He point out the idea that preference is modeled by a “bell-curve” which means that there is an “optimal level of complexity that is most enjoyable. Both very low complexity and very high complexity are less enjoyable” (p. 105). “Individuals have particular optimal complexity levels, with deviations in either direction decreasing liking. Simplistic music might produce boredom while overly complex music requires extensive processing that can decrease the likelihood that an individual will continue attending to the music. (Perkins, p. 5) Walker’s idea stresses out the fact and/or assertion that an individual, when introduced to a new kind of music will probably like and abandon the previous preference or he/she would have the same level of likeness to the both; previous and new kind of music. This, then leads to the point where the individual’s personality and/or attitude is greatly affected and influenced by the preference he/she chooses resulting to the creation of different views of the individual. Below is the diagram of the Theoretical Framework:
Conceptual Framework: Base on the ideas of the theories that were combined, the researcher came up with the above conceptualized framework. The music environment variables which include the institutions, experiences, group gatherings, self-concept and mass media are located at the top of the framework, followed by the second variable—students that become affected by the music environment. From this, the second variable could experience the exposure of the third variable which is considered to be the various types of music materials and response patterns.
Then, they can assess their response patterns by weighing the dominance of the dominant music which becomes the fourth variable in the framework. Upon weighing the dominance, the students will learn to choose and prefer the more dominant kind of music which then, formulates their views on it and the effect comes after. The variables in this framework are considered the specified factors following the points and ideas from the theories mentioned. In addition, the framework’s flow is also based on the things that the theories pointed out. Below is the diagram of the Conceptual Framework:
Operational Framework: The variables featured on the operational framework as showed below are the most specified factors that become a background flow of the research study. Home, UP Grounds, television, pals—variables found at the top of the framework are part of music environment which functions as the ones mainly influencing the second variable—the selected UP Female Students. This student variable now becomes the dependent variable in a way that its reactions depend on a certain situation due to the process that takes place in the music environment.
In reacting to the environment variable, students tend to enumerate in their minds the response patterns—KPOP’s beat, rhythm, composition, styles and performers—that they get from the influence of the music environment. Having the response patterns settled, students will have a selection of one type of music leaving the other type. Appearing in the framework, the dominance of KPOP music on the preference of Pinoy Youth becomes the outcome gained from the response patterns.
The dominance of KPOP music can possibly be assessed that Pinoy Youth will end up selecting and/or preferring KPOP music over OPM (original Pilipino music), which is another variable based on the framework. The effect of selecting Kpop over OPM by the Pinoy Youth will probably lead to the effect on their personality and/or attitude questioning now their sense of nationalism. In accordance with these analyses, the specific flow of ideas showed in the framework is only based on the points pondered by several theories provided in the previous pages having the views of the theorists, respectively.
Below is the diagram of the Operational Framework: CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The new generation today has been exposed already to the different kinds and genres of music. From time to time music has been improved and made more entertaining than before. This has evolved from the native type of music to the modern kind of music in which most of the teenagers at present seems to like and appreciate. Most of the music nowadays are already been mixed up.
Some music are from other countries that become popular and known to other neighboring countries and is still getting much popularity worldwide. Butler (2006) defines music as “an art of arranging across time”. Music is part of almost every culture on Earth but it varies widely among cultures in means and structure. Music is a language of human figure of communication with well developed rules of structure much like a form of sentence structure. An individual through music would be making interpretations based upon speech patterns like loud or soft rapid and bitten off, slow or smooth.
According to Greeks (20th century), the beginning of music can be solved by thought where ancient people make up chants of religion, war, love and death through direct organization of words with the combination of body movements. Greek philosophers assumed that listening to music based on certain modes in use at that time was beneficial to the enhancement of the young person’s character. With music, an individual can develop one’s potential and positive outlooks in life (Butler (2006). Music is “a mode of thought, a way of thinking in tones”. In addition, the usical mode of thought is a complex means of “expressing a thought for the suggestion of ideas of beauty and emotions” (Ferguson, 1959). With the help of rhythm, the message in music is delivered conveniently for rhythm contains everything that pertains to the forward movement of music in time. Rhythm is the pattern of beats in a piece of music. Mayol (1990) stated that “music has existed from time immemorial: archaeologists have unearthed traces of music in the most ancient society, ethnomusicologists have found it in even the most primitive tribal culture and scientists have claimed it present in space.
Yet, no one has been able to established precisely when, where, why or how music originated. Mayol (1990) also claimed that there are recent theories proposing that in all cultures, music originated in a similar manner which was from a universal source (monogenesis) (p. 3). Ordinary people became uninterested with its beginning that for them it is a nonsense and worthless. But as time pass by, its implication and origin have brought sensation to their lives.
And so, this made them vary their preferences towards the different kinds of music leading to other individuals conducting research and other related studies regarding with these behavior and choices. At present, there are already many types of music known to be famous. One of which is the popular music. Popular music pertains to a kind of music that is produced for a broader audience. This includes jazz, rock, rap music and many more. Popular music has three of the most important elements and these are language, beat and tune.
This popular music originated in America in the year 1850-1950 (Yudkin,1996). In addition, popular music is typically vocal where everybody can sing more or less, and it has no formal training because it is intended to appeal to the widest possible audience. Until now, this particular music is still being acknowledged and appreciated worldwide including Philippines as well as other European countries. (Yudkin,1996). Regarding this popular music, Korean Pop or known as K-Pop is one of today’s hits and famous music worldwide.
Korean pop music is the well kind of music in the country of South Korea today. K-pop music is just similar to western music. The only difference is their lyrics which are in the form of Korean. Hallyu is the word that means Korean wave. Part of the Korean wave is their overwhelming success not just in music but as well as in South Korean dramas and movies. The term Korean pop music does not only pertains to music but with accompaniment of movement that makes South Korea popular in Asia and neighboring countries from 1990’s until present (Villano,2010).
According to Hicap (2010), the making of Korean pop music also involves attractive young stars and their unique moves in dancing accompanied with how they dress up. One of the newest and most famous is Rain, the male singer who became artist after his shooting in the Korean Drama Full House with the actress Song Hye Kyo. BoA is one of Korea’s top female singers who has topped the charts in Korea, then Japan and released an album in US. BoA worked in partnership with western artists and was cited as an influential artist in the 2004 MTV Asia awards.
Others are bands and groups which are today’s most known. One of them is the female group 2nel having a member who became famous in the Philippines before she reached her fame in Korea. Her name is Sandara Park. The next known group is the Wonder Girls, also a female group who was famous for their popular hit “Nobody” which was loved by many Filipinos. Other group includes SS501, a male group that become famous after the inclusion of some of their songs in the soundtrack of the popular Boys Over Flowers and having their member Kim Hyun Jung.
Todays’ known female group, the Girls Generation who were trained in various aspects of the performing arts, has its own TV Series and they endorse products in Korea. There are still many known groups and artists that contributed to the success of the Korean Pop Music such as the Super Junior and Shinee group. These bands and groups made Korean Pop music be known (Hicap, 2010). Younger Korean musicians have already gained reputation, much popularity and appreciation as top performers in both concert and entertainment fields.
In relation to this, youth around Asia especially Filipino youths have been affected by the outstanding effect not just to the K-pop music but also to other music from other countries (Kim,1985). A study by Fritzie Joy J. Dungog (1997) distinguishes the influence of Pinoy alternative music to the attitude of students towards local government officials. Dungog used a three part questionnaire that asked questions pertaining to personal data, exposure questions and an attitudinal test. The questionnaire was distributed to 284 respondents.
Based on the questionnaires she gave to the 284 respondents, the researcher found out that the respondents showed a high level of exposure to Pinoy Alternative Music and that the majority of respondents exhibited a positive approach towards their city government officials. The study also revealed that “there were no significant relationship between the attitudes of respondents toward their city local government officials and the frequency exposure to Pinoy Alternative Music”(Dungog, (1997)). Dino Arnaldo A.
Karganilla (1994) determines the effect of exposure to foreign music in FM stations on the perception of high school students towards Filipino music. The study covered a sample size of 111 fourth year U. P. College High School attendees through a two-page questionnaire which were given to those 111 respondents. The instrument that Karganilla used in his study was a two paged questionnaire composed of three sections with an additional information part. The researcher discovered that the respondents had a low level of exposure to foreign music and that the respondents had a favorable insight towards Original Pilipino Muisc (OPM).
There was no connection between the respondents’ sexual category and rank of exposure that could influence their view towards Original Pinoy Music (OPM) and in turn, the exposure to foreign local FM stations did not bear a negative impact of the respondents toward Original Pilipino Music (OPM). A supplementary research study by Jessica Servande Losorata (2008) verifies whether Cebu local rock music airplay on Monster Radio BT 105. 9 has either a positive or a negative impact on selected rock bands that have played for Harakiri Mosh Production. “A Focused Group Discussion (FGD) with selected ock bands that have played for Harakiri Mosh Production was the main method in gathering the data. A separate Focused Group Discussion (FGD) with Monster Radio BT 105. 9 listeners and online interviews with the station’s manager and a representative of Harakiri Mosh Production were also conducted to gather additional information” (Losorata, (2008)). The researcher found out that the respondents were not devoted clients of radio. They had a low level of exposure to radio but their consciousness of its Cebu local rock music airplay was positive.
The results of the study was been supported after the researcher interviewed Paolo Valera, known as Paolo Walker, the station manager of Monster Radio BT 105. 9 together with Shanette G. Mancao, one of the founder of Harakiri Mosh Production. For the respondents, the interviews and interactions were done through internet because of the interviewees schedule and activities. Another study by R. S. Holganza (1987) was all about the relationship between the exposure to foreign music in FM stations and the attitude of fourth year high school University of San Jose-Recoletos (USJ-R) students towards Original Pilipino Music (OPM).
This particular research was conducted to determine if there is a connection between the exposure to foreign music in local FM stations and the attitude of fourth year USJ-R students toward OPM. The research was conducted inside the University of San Jose-Recoletos (USJ-R) High School campus using 100 fourth year male and female respondents from the different economic levels. The respondents exposure to foreign music was determined by the number of hours spent listening to FM stations while the respondents attitude was measured by four OPM-related statements.
The respondents in this specific study belonged to the same age level which was 16 to 17 with same educational attainment (fourth year high school). The researcher found out that the respondents were exposed to local FM stations whose programming was more on foreign music but the playing of foreign songs in FM stations seems not to decrease or slow down the popularity of the Original Pilipino Music (OPM). The amount of exposure to FM stations influenced the respondents’ liking of Filipino songs and the respondents over-all choice of song as verified by the results of the chi-square test was the Original Pilipino Music (OPM).
A related study was conducted by Minni K. Ang and Miranda P. Yeoh (year) concerning the music preferences of Malaysian students and KBSM Curriculum implications (explain). Ang and Yeoh organized this by preparing ten selection of ethnic-based Malaysian music and twenty selection of non ethnic related music consisting of ten popular music selections and ten western art music selections were used. Ratings of preferences, familiarity and musical training were gathered from 139 randomly selected teenage students of two public schools in Serdang, Malaysia.
The researchers discovered that the respondents preferred non-ethnic related music especially popular music. In addition, the interpreted results proved that the main factor affecting their preference for both ethnic-based Malaysian music and non ethnic-related music was their familiarity of the music (M. K. &Yeoh, 2002). These past studies serve as a basic foundation to this recent research which determines if factors like rhythm and music composition of Korean Popular Music really affect the Pinoy teenagers’ preference towards Original Pilipino Music and if this would affect their sense of nationalism.
According to Malm (1977), there are explanations about the behavior observed with regards to the preference of Filipino youth. Malm said that early in the history back to the time where Philippines was colonized, the Filipino music traditions were mixed with Spanish-type of music which was distributed into the country. “The Spanish influence becomes even stronger as one move toward Philippine urban culture” Malm (1977). Malm (1977) claimed that Filipino possesses an attitude which comes from the experience of colonization, wherein it has adapted many music cultures from different neighboring countries in the history.
Through this fact, it can now be related to the issue of choice of music that Filipino youth is experiencing with interest, specifically its fascination towards Korean pop music. Additionally, they ought to love the unfamiliar type of music with amazement and astonishment to that kind of music. Regarding this concept, the popularity of the native music will declined slowly until it will no longer be known. According to Mayol (1990), the shifting of the Youth’s musical preference is due to the music’s influential power that serves as a “shaping force in determining the nature of the moral character of the populace.
The power of music affecting a person was derived from its structure. The above mentioned cases and studies have shown that there is an effect or impact regarding the preference of Pinoy teenagers toward music. And the above researches would aid the current researchers to accomplish their study about the Pinoy Youth’s Preference for Korean Pop Music and how does it affect their taste for Original Pilipino Music (OPM). This would serve as guiding principles in this latest study. Bibliography Books: Hoffer, C. R. (1989). The Understanding of Music (sixth edition): Personal Preference in Music.
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