1. Although the voyages of Christopher Columbus are better remembered today, the explorations of Vasco da Gama were arguably more important at the time. Why? In your response, describe the differences between the two, including the impact each had on global trade through the first half of the 16th c. 
  2. Thomas Jefferson and Toussaint L’Ouverture, born a year apart, were both “founding fathers,” yet their fates and that of their countries diverged radically. In what ways was L’Ouverture an Enlightenment figure? How can you explain the difference between his experience of revolution and nation-building and that of Jefferson?
  3. With the founding of the Dutch East Indies Company in 1602, the global economy was introduced to a novel and very powerful form of doing business. How was this new form, the “joint stock company,” different from previous forms of conducting trade and investment? Use both the Dutch East Indies and the British East Indies companies to illustrate the rise of this modern corporate form in the 17th and 18th centuries.

Part Two (40 points): Short Essay. Develop the argument below in a clear, intelligible, and persuasive form.  Your essay should be about 450-500 words and should use ONLY the materials and lectures assigned in this course. Your essay should include:  i) a thorough explanation of the meaning of the Columbian Exchange; ii) a description of the ways in which it enabled European global domination by the end of the 18th century;  and iii) an analysis of its economic, cultural, and political impact on either East Asia, South Asia, or Africa.

            The modern world can be dated from the Columbian Exchange, and its effects are still resonating around the globe. 

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