Which of the following factors will lead to the advance of a glacier? Question 1 options: Warm summer temperatures Low amounts of winter snowfall Warm winter temperatures High amounts of summer rainfall High amounts of winter snowfall Question 2 (1 point) Among sediments transported by wind, sand is most likely to be moved in the ____ load, while finer sediments like silt, clay and dust, are usually found in the____ load. Question 2 options: suspended, dissolved dissolved, ventifact suspended, bed bed, suspended yardang, inselberg Question 3 (1 point) Ths tallest sand dunes in the world are formed when there is an abundance of sand and wind from multiple directions. What is the name of this type of dune? Question 3 options: Transverse dunes Parabolic dunes Barchanoid dunes Longitudinal dunes Star dunes Question 4 (1 point) Which process is responsible for the transport and deposition of loess? Question 4 options: wind waves ground water streams longshore drift Question 5 (1 point) A(n) _______ is confined to a long, narrow valley located in mountainous areas especially closer to the poles. Question 5 options: Mountainous glacier Ice sheet Alpine glacier Moraine Continental glacier Question 6 (1 point) Many of the deserts on earth are located in zones of subtropical high pressure. Along which lines of latitude are these zones found? Question 6 options: 30° North and 30° South The Equator and 60° North The Equator and the South Pole 60° North and 60° South The Equator and the North Pole Question 7 (1 point) What is the name of the desert landform shown below? Question 7 options: desert pavement yardang transverse dune loess star dune Question 8 (1 point) When an alpine glacier retreats, which of the following occurs? Question 8 options: the zone of accumulation moves downslope the distance between the zone of accumulation and the zone of melting does not change the zone of melting moves upslope the zone of melting moves downslope the zone of accumulation moves upslope Question 9 (1 point) What does it mean when a glacier “advances”? Question 9 options: The glacier is calving into the ocean, where pieces of ice are becoming icebergs. The terminus of the glacier is shifting forward; the glacier is growing longer. It is flowing downhill towards the end of the glacier. It is gaining snow as fast as it is losing it; the glacier is not shrinking. Question 10 (1 point) Which of the following features is most likely to be associated with sandstone formed in a desert environment? Question 10 options: cross-bedding moraines loess arêtes till Question 11 (1 point) Which of the following landforms is created by a continental glacier polishing one side of a bedrock outcrop, and plucking pieces out from the other side? Question 11 options: horn drumlin truncated spur roche moutonnée cirque Question 12 (1 point) Which type of sand dunes are shown in the image below? Question 12 options: slipface dunes longitudinal dunes barchan dunes transverse dunes star dunes Question 13 (1 point) A series of alluvial fans that form at the mouths of adjacent canyons and coalesce into an apron of sediment along one side of a desert valley is called a Question 13 options: evaporite playa fault block bajada inselberg Question 14 (1 point) What is the dominant geologic agent of erosion in most deserts? Question 14 options: Wind Playas Dust storms Water Bajadas Question 15 (1 point) Which of the following is a landform not usually associated with alpine glaciers? Question 15 options: truncated spur drumlin horn arête hanging valley Identify the landform in the image below. Question 1 options: Question 2 (1 point) Identify the landform in the image. Question 2 options: Question 3 (1 point) Identify the landform in the image. Be as specific as possible. Question 3 options: Question 4 (1 point) Identify the landform in the image. Question 4 options: Question 5 (1 point) Identify the landform in the image below. Question 5 options: Question 6 (1 point) Identify the landform in the image. Question 6 options: Question 7 (1 point) What are the grooves in this polished glacial rock called? Question 7 options: Question 8 (1 point) What are these landforms called? Question 8 options: Question 9 (1 point) What is the name of this feature (a deposit of glacial sediment along the side of a formerly glaciated valley)? Question 9 options: Question 10 (1 point) What type of sediment is shown her (unsorted debris left behind after glacial melting)? Question 10 options: about types and numbers of pollen found within a dated core sample. 100 µm _____ Past climate proxies 4: tree rings growth • Patterns in tree-ring widths, density, and isotopic composition reflect variations in climate. • • Trees that depend heavily on temperature in the growing season will have narrow rings during cold periods and wider rings for warm periods. Trees that depend heavily on moisture during the growing season will have wider rings during rainy periods and narrower rings during dry periods. Climate has always changed • Evidence from geologic record using proxies 570 440 Millions of Years ago 290 210 145 65 1.8 Climate changes over million of years • Climate can change over million of years • Changes are never smooth: there are significant fluctuations with both cooling and warming trends – Notice the fluctuations in the global cooling that has been occurring for the past 49 MY as indicated by sea level temperatures Long term climate control 1: composition of the atmosphere It changed through time → oxygen became a major constituent only about ~2.2 billion years ago. Greenhouse gases increase heat retention in the atmosphere making it habitable Long term control 2: Distribution of landmasses If there are landmasses at the poles, large continental sheet glaciers can be established At present the only continental glaciers are Antarctica and Greenland. • Long term control 3: Oceanic circulation • Ocean circulation is the large-scale movement of water in ocean basins. • Water has high heat capacity and can bring heat and moisture at high latitudes. climate has changes through Geologic History Changes happen through fluctuations Shorter term climate fluctuations – the past 2 my • Glaciations alternated with warmer interglacial intervals occurred several times during the past 2 million years During the past couple million of years, this is how the northern hemisphere looked like every time a glacial period occurred Shorter term climate fluctuations caused by orbital variations: the Milankovitch Cycles The orbit of Earth changes in 3 ways almost regularly Because of variation of the Orbital Parameters affect the amount of solar radiation received – HEAT on Earth → climate change! • Eccentricity (100ky) • Obliquity (40ky) • Precession (23,000yr) Shortest Climate variations: from climate to weather • The atmosphere has a complex, dynamic structure, it moves by convection and it rotates with the planet forming cell = channels and currents. • This generates areas of high and low pressure, from which the major wind systems form. • changes in these patterns can generate short term climate variability that can last years to centuries Example of climate fluctuations of shortest term Jet Streams – Polar Jet stream • Jet streams are bands of strong wind in the troposphere that generally blow from west to east across the globe • They impact weather and air travel North Atlantic Oscillation NAO • Pattern of atmospheric circulation that depends on the difference in atmospheric pressure at sea level between the Azores high pressure and Iceland low pressure. • Positive NAO phase (mode) = HIGH difference (positive NOA index) = very high Azores – very low Iceland • Negative: LOW difference between the two pressure centers. • NAO phases are associated with changes in the intensity and location of the North Atlantic jet stream which in turn results in changes in temperature and precipitation patterns from eastern North America to western and central Europe. High NAO →above-normal temperatures in the eastern United States and across northern Europe and below-normal temperatures in Greenland, southern Europe and the Middle East Sea Surface Temperature SST and ENSO = El Nino Southern Oscillation • It is a pattern of atmospheric circulation that depends on the difference in pressure in the Pacific and the Ocean’s Sea Surface Temperature Normal condition: the trade winds push warm, moist water to the west, where it triggers rain seasons and monsoons. To the east, nutrients rich cold water wells up and “feeds” fish ENSO El Nino condition: A warming of the central-eastern tropical Pacific Ocean surface, above-average sea surface temperatures (SST) → ocean temperature remains warm and stratified. Weak trade winds do not clear the moist water, monsoons weaken or do not form Sea Surface Temperature SST and ENSO = El Nino Southern Oscillation • We are currently under la Nina advisory = equatorial SST are below average from west-central Pacific Ocean • Despite the general cooling influence of La Niña events, land temperatures are expected to be above-normal for most parts of the globe until late April 2021. Source: NOAA https://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/analysis_monitoring/lanina/enso_evolution-status-fcsts-web.pdf Temperature and Climate change Climate changes at any scale is marked by small but sustained changes in temperature. ✓Earth’s climate record show that small changes in temperature cause huge changes in the environment. ✓At the end of the last ice age, when the Northeast United States was covered by more than 3,000 feet of ice, average temperatures were ~ 10 F degrees cooler than today. Climate is changing NOW • Sea level has increased 8” since the later 1800s and it continues to rise. • Glaciers retreat • Loss of sea ice • Increase length of frost-free seasons impacts agriculture • Changes in precipitation pattern are more pronounced • Increased drought and heat waves • Hurricanes stronger and more frequent • Anthropogenic activities can exacerbate the effects with major consequence for our species and other species as well Source: USGS Effects of major climate changes on life: Extinction Effects of climate changes on life: early human migrations Effect of climate changes on human history • Human species is very sensitive to climate fluctuations • Humans owe the establishment of their civilization to an unusually stable sea level that set in ~8000 BCE • Smaller fluctuations made significant impact on human societies Hazards, Risk and Mitigation • Natural hazards are natural processes and cannot be changed • Risk depends on the vulnerability to a given hazard • The same hazard can have diverse level of risk, depending on the degree of vulnerability Risk Mitigation (=lowering the vulnerability) of any hazard can be achieved by: Studying the process and Monitoring the hazard Risk Mitigation (=lowering the vulnerability) can be achieved by: Finding engineering solution Risk Mitigation (=lowering the vulnerability) can be achieved by: Land use planning Risk Mitigation (=lowering the vulnerability) can be achieved by: preparedness Anthropogenic Hazards Caused in part or entirely by human activities either directly generating the hazard or by affecting Earth processes rates and intensity Example of anthropogenic hazards are • Technological (nuclear, industrial, etc) • Technological complexities and human fallibility (accidents) • Hazardous Materials (mining, nuclear, pollution,…) • Consequence of interference with natural/surface processes (examples: dams, solid waste, climate effects) Anthropogenic Hazard: CO2 emissions interference with the Carbon Cycle • CO2 natural reservoirs, in addition to the atmosphere are the biosphere (plants, soil), the hydrosphere (deep ocean water) and the lithosphere (Carbonate rocks and mafic igneous rocks) Vulnerability: Human high sensitivity to change of climate • Humans owe the establishment of their civilization to a rather unusual stable sea

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