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COLLISIONS EXPERIMENT THEORY When two objects, with at least one being in motion, interact with each other they can become part of a collision. Depending upon how the objects behave after the moment of impact, the collision can be described as either purely elastic or purely inelastic. In a purely elastic collision, each object moves independently after impact. In a purely inelastic collision, both objects couple together and move as a system with a common velocity. For each type of collision, the linear momentum of each object before and after the collision is conserved. PROCEDURE: 1. Create the following two masses: • First mass o Fill a small plastic bag with approximately a ¼ cup of rice. o Seal the bag. o Use a paper clip to poke a small hole through the top of the bag. o Use two rubber bands to tie the bag together as shown in Figure 1. • Second mass o Fill a small plastic bag with approximately a ½ cup of rice. o Seal the bag. o Use a paper clip to poke a small hole through the top of the bag. o Use two rubber bands to tie the bag together as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1 – An example of the first mass, placed on top of the device. 2. 3. 4. 5. Calibrate the Force sensor. Within the iOLab software select the “Force” sensor. Click the “Record” button. Vertically suspend the device as follows: • Attach the long spring to the eyebolt. • Gently pick up the device and allow the long spring to dangle from the bottom. • Use the paperclip to suspend the first mass for approximately five (5) seconds. Detach the first mass from the long spring. Use the paperclip to suspend the second mass for approximately five (5) seconds. Click on the “Stop” button. Click on the Histogram button. Select the relevant data for each mass suspension. Record the following values for each mass: o Average force Place the device on the table with its wheels facing down. Within the iOLab software do the following: • Deselect the “Force” sensor. • Select the “Wheels” sensor. o Deselect the “Position” and “Acceleration” options. Click the “Record” button. • Give the device a gentle push forward. • After a few seconds of motion, gently drop the first mass onto the device to create an inelastic collision. o The mass should be held only a centimeter or two above the device prior to release to prevent damaging the device. • After a few additional seconds of motion click on the “Stop” button. o An example of the data is shown below in Figure 2. Upload a screenshot of this graph into Canvas. • • • • • • 6. 7. 8. 9. Motion before impact Device’s initial push Motion during impact Motion after impact Figure 2 – Sample data from the first mass trial. 10. Click on the Zoom button. • Select the data points corresponding the device’s velocity immediately before impact and immediately after impact as seen in Figure 3. • Record the initial and final velocities. Velocity before impact Velocity after impact Figure 3 – Specific data from the first mass trial. 11. Repeat the previous measurement for the second mass. DATA ANALYSIS: • Show the following calculations for both trials: 1. Initial Momentum of the System o The device’s mass was measured in a previous experiment. 2. Final Momentum of the System o The device’s mass plus bag’s mass, both must be considered. 3. Momentum Percent Difference DATA TABLES PLASTIC BAG First Second AVERAGE FORCE 𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦,𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 ( 𝑁𝑁 ) PLASTIC BAG MASS 𝑚𝑚 = 𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦,𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 /𝑔𝑔 ( Kg ) Trial First INITIAL VELOCITY 𝑣𝑣0𝑥𝑥 ( 𝑚𝑚⁄𝑠𝑠 ) Second First Plastic Bag Initial Momentum 𝑃𝑃0𝑥𝑥 = Final Momentum 𝑃𝑃𝑥𝑥 = Momentum Percent Difference 𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃 = Second Plastic Bag Initial Device Momentum 𝑃𝑃0𝑥𝑥 = Final Device Momentum 𝑃𝑃𝑥𝑥 = Device Momentum Percent Difference 𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃 = FINAL VELOCITY 𝑣𝑣𝑥𝑥 ( 𝑚𝑚⁄𝑠𝑠 ) TABLE OF RESULTS LINEAR MOMENTUM Trial First INITIAL 𝑃𝑃0𝑥𝑥 ( 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘 ∙ 𝑚𝑚⁄𝑠𝑠 ) FINAL 𝑃𝑃𝑥𝑥 ( 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘 ∙ 𝑚𝑚⁄𝑠𝑠 ) PERCENT DIFFERENCE 𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃 (%) Second Was the device’s linear momentum conserved? If yes, then justify your answer. If not, then name one external force that could cause the non-conservation. Mass #1Average force: 0.588N Mass #2Average force: 1.152N Mass #1 Velocity before impact: 0.117 m/s Velocity after impact: 0.020 m/s Mass #2 Velocity before impact: 0.360 m/s Velocity after impact
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