Textbook:Dupont, R. R., Ganesan, K., & Theodore, L. (2017). Pollution prevention: Sustainability, industrial ecology, and green engineering (2nd ed.). CRC Press. 1 attachmentsSlide 1 of 1

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UNIT IV STUDY GUIDE Pollution Prevention Strategies Course Learning Outcomes for Unit IV Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 4. Evaluate pollution prevention strategies. 4.1 Analyze source reduction options. 4.2 Summarize recycling options. Course/Unit Learning Outcomes 4.1 4.2 Learning Activity Unit Lesson Chapter 19 Chapter 22 Unit IV Essay Unit Lesson Chapter 20 Chapter 22 Unit IV Essay Required Unit Resources Chapter 19: Source Reduction Options Chapter 20: Recycling Options Chapter 22: General Applications Unit Lesson Introduction Welcome to Unit IV. We have learned about the foundation for pollution prevention (P2) by studying the laws, life cycle analysis, and audits. Our objective now is to evaluate source reduction options. Source reduction, reuse, and recycling—these are the #1, #2, and #3 most preferable P2 activities in the now familiar P2 hierarchy (see the image below as a reminder). Let’s go back to the fictitious company that was introduced in Unit I, SpecialtyParts, Inc. In Unit I, the P2 specialist acquainted the company’s division managers with P2. The P2 specialist led the managers through the P2 hierarchy and had each manager prepare a list of P2 possibilities within their departments. MEE 6201, Advanced Pollution Prevention 1 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title P2 hierarchy (Adapted from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], n.d.) As a part of the managers’ investigations into P2 options for each of their divisions, several tasks were identified as having potential for cost reduction through P2. There were two tasks identified that needed further examination: 1. Reevaluate the wall thickness of plastic bottles that the company manufactures. 2. Consider purchasing aluminum beams to be installed horizontally to support vertically applied loads rather than steel beams as has been typical of the company in the past. Plastic Bottle Evaluation One of the many diverse products SpecialtyParts, Inc. manufactures is polyethylene (PET) plastic bottles for the beverage industry. The particular bottle that SpecialtyParts makes is for holding a carbonated beverage, such as soda pop. In the meeting with the P2 specialist, the plastics division manager suggested that the company might be able to save money and use less PET in this product line by reevaluating the wall thickness used in the PET bottle manufacturing process. The PET bottle must be able to withstand an internal pressure of 75 psi (pounds per square inch) relative to the surrounding atmospheric pressure. The bottle has an inside diameter of 2.5 inches and a wall thickness of 0.03 inch. The beverage companies that purchase the bottles require the inside diameter of 2.5 inches, but they do not specify a wall thickness as long as a safety factor of 2.5 is used. Decades ago, the wall thickness of 0.03 inch was determined by SpecialtyParts because it met the safety factor requirement and is a wall thickness that SpecialtyParts’ machinery could readily manufacture. With newer, more precise equipment used throughout the SpecialtyParts plant and the emphasis on P2, the plastics division manager suggested that reevaluating the wall thickness might be prudent. The wall thickness of a hollow cylindrical container can be obtained by using the Barlow equation seen below (Riley et al., 2002). MEE 6201, Advanced Pollution Prevention 2 t = Wall thickness, in inches F = Safety factor p = Inside pressure relative to outside pressure, psi (i.e., lb/in 2). D = Inside diameter of container, in inches s = Tensile strength of wall material, psi UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title The tensile strength of PET plastic is 10,200 psi, therefore: The cost for the raw PET pellets is $0.70 per pound. The weight of a bottle when using a wall thickness of 0.03 inch was measured to be 0.05905 pound. A prototype bottle was made using the proposed wall thickness of 0.023 inch, and its weight was measured as 0.04357 pound. The PET cost to make a 0.03-inch thick bottle is: The PET cost to make a 0.023-inch thick bottle is: The cost difference per bottle, ΔCb is: To fulfill its contracts, SpecialtyParts has to produce 100,000 bottles per day. Using the smaller wall thickness for

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