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+ Appendix A to Chapter 4 Stages of Systems Engineering Project Management for Engineering, Business, and Technology Prepared by John Nicholas, Ph.D. Loyola University Chicago Information Classification: General Stages of the Systems Engineering Process Information Classification: General Stage 1 of the Systems Engineering Process: Needs Identification and Conceptual Design Main tasks of this stage • Define stakeholder needs and requirements • Feasibility analysis • High-level requirements analysis • System-level synthesis • Create system specification Information Classification: General Stage 1: Needs Identification and Conceptual Design • • Identify the stakeholders, including the client or customer and others who will be affected by or able to impact (contribute to, support, or block) the system. Develop a clear conception of the need or problem begins by asking basic questions: 1. How did the problem or need arise? 2. Who believes it to be a problem or feels the need? 3. Is this the root problem or need, or is it a manifestation of some other, deeper problem? 4. Why is a solution important? How much money (or time, etc.) will it save? What is the value of the system? 5. How important is the need? Would resources be better applied to another need? Information Classification: General Stage 1: Needs Identification and Conceptual Design Requirements Definition High-level requirements incorporate everything important about the system, including • Objectives. The overarching aim of the system in terms of several objectives, each elaborated in terms of a set of requirements. • Life cycle. How the system will be built, tested, distributed, marketed, financed, operated, maintained, and disposed of (includes ancillary issues, “side items,” and environmental impacts. • Operational modes. The multiple environments and different ways in which the system will be used. Each constitutes a different set of requirements. • Constraints. Policies, procedures, and standards; available materials, knowledge, and technology; and limited time, funding, and resources. • Interfaces. An interface occurs wherever a system receives input from or provides output to other systems. Requirements specify the interfaces and mandated or pre-specified inputs or outputs at each. • Requirements stated in the language of the stakeholders are compiled in the stakeholder requirements document (SRD). Information Classification: General Stage 1: Needs Identification and Conceptual Design Requirements Definition Feasibility • Given high-level requirements,next step is to identify alternative high-level (system-level) solutions. • These are evaluated in terms of costs, risks, effectiveness, and benefits using studies and models. System Requirements Analysis • Next step: specify what the system must do to be able to meet the requirements in the SRD; this is purpose of system requirements. • System requirements tell the designers the functions the system must perform and the physical characteristics it must possess to meet requirements in the SRD. Information Classification: General Stage 1: Needs Identification and Conceptual Design Requirements Definition System requirements analysis addresses three kinds of requirements: functional, performance, verification. Functional Requirements • These specify the functions the system must perform to meet requirements in the SRD, including those for support, operation and maintenance. • A tool for analyzing and defining functional requirements is the functional flow block diagram, FFBD. Each block represents a function that the system must perform to satisfy objectives or requirements. Information Classification: General Functional flow block diagram, FFBD Each block represents a function; each function is defined in greater detail by decomposing it into sub-functions 3.3 Information Classification: General Stage 1: Needs Identification and Conceptual Design Requirements Definition Performance Requirements • Associated with each functional requirement are performance requirements • Functional requirement state what the system must do; performance requirements specify how well it must do it • Are usually specified in physical parameters, e.g., speed, acceleration, weight, tolerance, power, force, time. Verification Requirements • Accompanying each performance requirement is a set of verification requirements • These specify the procedures, measures, and tests to verify that the performance requirement has been met Information Classification: General Stage 1: Needs Identification and Conceptual Design Synthesis Addresses the relationships among the system-level requirements and alternative ways to satisfy them; e.g. • Create newly designed or technologies and parts • Procure existing—”off the shelf” (OTS)—designs and products – • OTS items can be readily purchased or built; they are often preferable to newly designed ones because they are readily available and sometimes less costly When no OTS item is available and creating a new design would be too costly, risky, or timeconsuming, the requirements must be revised. Information Classification: General Stage 1: Needs Identification and Conceptual Design Synthesis Result of synthesis is the “system specification.” The system specification • Is a comprehensive list of all the functions the new system must satisfy • Identifies a firm or tentative solution (whether the item will be developed or bought) for each function. • Serves as a guide for designers in the stages of preliminary and detailed system design. Information Classification: General Stage 2 of the Systems Engineering Process: Preliminary Design Main tasks of Preliminary Design • Translate system-level functional requirements into design requirements for the subsystems. • Perform tradeoff studies of high-level elements comprising the system • Allocate the system-level requirements among the subsystems. Information Classification: General Stage 2: Preliminary Design Identify Functions of Subsystems • • • Repeat the FFBD process to decompose the system-level functions into subsystem-level functions As before, define functional, performance, and verification requirements for each function. The degree of detail of the FFDBs is whatever necessary to define each subsystem and permit decisions about whether each function can be met with an OTS design or product or must be designed and built from scratch. Information Classification: General Stage 2: Preliminary Design Grouping of Functions System architecture • Next step is to group the identified functions and requirements according to the desired physical architecture of the system (i.e., how the major components in the system are configured or arranged to satisfy the functions of the system. • Example, architecture for a bicycle: – – Major components: two wheels, frame, seat, pedals and chain, handle bar. Configuration: wheel attached at each end of frame; front wheel pivots on frame; seat mounted on frame; pedals attached to frame but linked by chain to rear wheel. Information Classification: General Stage 2: Preliminary Design Grouping of Functions Configuration Items • Each subsystem that will perform a major function is called a configuration item or CI. • From here on, the history of each CI will be documented and monitored throughout the system’s complete life cycle—its design, production, and operation. • Documenting and tracking the CI’s is called configuration management. – The purpose is to ensure that any changes in the design, production, or usage of the CI do not alter or degrade its ability to meet the functional requirements. Information Classification: General Stage 2: Preliminary Design Requirements Allocation • As of this point, the design consists of (1) a list of the functional requirements (2) a high-level design of the system—the major subsystem or CI’s, and the system architecture • • • Next step is to “allocate” the functional requirements to the CIs, i.e., assign responsibility for each functional requirement to one or more of the CI’s. Purpose is to ensure that every functional requirement will be addressed by at least one subsystem or CI. Resulting allocations are shown in an “allocation” or “traceability” matrix Information Classification: General Allocation (Traceability) Matrix Information Classification: General Stage 2: Preliminary Design Requirements Allocation • • • • Since each CI represents something that will ultimately be a physical item—a piece of hardware, software, etc., assignment of functional requirements to CI’s represents a subtle change in thinking—from what must be done to how the system will do it. Allocation of requirements results in setting specific technical targets for each CI. Achieving these targets is critical, so the estimated and actual performance of each CI is closely monitored. If it becomes clear that a target cannot be achieved, then the allocations are readjusted. Information Classification: General Stage 2: Preliminary Design Interfaces • • • • All subsystems rely on outputs of other functions, and provide inputs to still other functions—they interface. All interfaces must be identified and requirements set for each. FFBDs provide information about interfaces. Each FFBD arrow represents interface between functions. – Physical—connections, joints, supports, pipes – Electronic—analog or digital signals, electricity – Hydraulic/pneumatic—liquid or gas – Software—data – Environment—temperature, pressure, humidity, radiation, magnetism – Procedural—completion of a procedural step so another next step can begin Identifying the interfaces is necessary for setting inputoutput requirements of every subsystem and element. Information Classification: General Stage 2: Preliminary Design Synthesis and Evaluation • • • • • Designing each CI and its elements involves choosing design alternatives and deciding to use an OTS designs or products, or to create new ones. Selection of alternatives considers the synthesis of components—the impact of each design decision on other components and the overall system. With each decision, the form and configuration of the CI’s evolves and the appearance of the system takes shape. By the end of preliminary design: system architecture will have been established; system-level requirements will have been allocated among the CI’s. The architecture and allocation form the “allocated baseline” design Information Classification: General Example: CI’s and Allocated Baseline Design Information Classification: General Stage 3 of the Systems Engineering Process: Detailed Design and System Development Project moves from “concepts on paper” to a ready-to-build design • Decisions made: will subsystems/ components be manual, automatic, electronic, mechanical, hydraulic, etc.? • Available, OTS components are selected based on surveys or comparison tests in a laboratory • Newly developed components are tested experimentally using models to verify the designs • System is checked under a variety of conditions and operational modes. • Modifications are made to remove oversights and deficiencies and to improve the system. • The capability (facilities and resources) to produce the system (the “process design”) is developed Information Classification: General Stage 4 of the Systems Engineering Process: System Construction and/or Production Begins as soon as the design is approved and “frozen.” • During this stage the system is either (1) mass produced (2) produced in limited quantities with different features or (3) built as a single item. • The stage involves acquiring materials, managing inventory, and controlling production/construction operations to uphold performance, quality, reliability, safety, and other requirements. Information Classification: General Stage 5 of the Systems Engineering Process: System Operation and Support Phase Customer operates the system; system ultimately wears out or becomes obsolete. • Developer might provide support; e.g.: – – – – • in deploying, installing, and checking out the system assisting in day-to-day operation with field service and maintenance support Modifying or enhancing the system Closing or phasing out, and disposing of the system at the end of its life cycle. Close-out and disposal of the system can be a major consideration in the design and operation of the system, especially so for systems that have potential to degrade the surrounding environment. Information Classification: General Designer Burt Rutan (center), and pilots Mike Melville (left) & Brian Binney Information Classification: General Chapter 4 Project Definition and System Definition Project Management for Engineering, Business, and Technology Prepared by John Nicholas, Ph.D. Loyola University Chicago Project Life Cycle Phase A: Conception phase Initiation stage Feasibility stage Proposal preparation Phase D: Operation phase System maintenance and evaluation System improvement (To Phase A: Repeat cycle) Phase B: Definition phase Project definition System definition User and system requirements Phase C: Execution phase Design stage Production/build stage Fabrication Testing System Implementation stage termination Training Acceptance tests System Installation replacement Termination Phase B: Definition ◼ Assume have the following upon entering this stage ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ Project has been approved and funded. An SOW in RFP and proposal Initial list of user requirements A “rudimentary” project plan, as necessary for specifying technical content, time, and price in the proposal Contract with SOW (“CSOW) Phase B: Definition (cont’d) ◼ Principle tasks during Phase B (not necessarily in this order) ❑ Organize project team: hold “kickoff” ❑ Clarify in detail user requirements ❑ Prepare detailed system requirements ❑ Prepare project master plan ❑ Review requirements and plan with customer Phase B: Definition Tasks ◼ In little projects, Phase B is short since ❑ ◼ much definition already happened in proposal preparation In big projects, Phase B can be lengthy ❑ sometimes taking years Project Definition vs. System Definition Project Kickoff Meeting The first formal meeting of the project team members and key stakeholders. ◼ A formal presentation with a question-and-answer period at the end. ◼ The project manager plans and runs the meeting. ◼ Runs 1.5-2 hours ◼ Purpose is to announce the project ❑ communicate what the project is about ❑ develop common expectations ❑ generate enthusiasm and commitment to project goals and deliverables. ◼ Covers ❑ who is the project manager ❑ project SOW, goals, and deliverables ❑ proposed project plan—budget, schedule, main work packages ❑ constraints and risks ❑ customers and other key stakeholders, their needs and requirements ❑ project organization structure and key team members ❑ immediate next steps. ◼ Held for every project and every major effort associated with the project ◼ Phase B: Primary Definition Tasks User/customer Needs Define User/customer Requirements System Definition Create Project Master Plan Project Definition Define System Requirements and Specifications Project Definition ◼ ◼ ◼ During Definition, the project master plan and end-item requirements and specifications are defined. The system requirements and specification address “what” the end-item of the project must do. The project master plan describes “how” project will deliver end-item that meets system requirements and specifications Define User/customer Define System Requirements ◼ Iterative process ❑ ❑ Details of the specifications are defined; master plan is expanded to reflect details As master plan is expanded, project constraints/opportunities/resources are identified, which leads to revisions in specifications Requirements and Specifications Create Project Master Plan Project Definition = Project Planning Project Definition What goes into a project plan (the “execution” plan)? Ask: ❑ What? ❑ How? ❑ Who? ❑ When? ❑ How long? ❑ Where? ❑ How much? ❑ How well? ◼ Project Definition = Project Planning ◼ Proposal addressed these questions, but usually not in much detail. Project Master Plan ◼ Project master plan addresses these questions to the satisfaction of project core team (people who will do work) ◼ Addresses all matters about project in sufficient detail for managers to organize and direct work to meet performance, cost, and time targets and for team to begin work ◼ Level of detail in the master plan far exceeds level in the proposal Common Elements of Project Master Plan 1. What? Scope Statement, Charter, or SOW 2. What? Detailed requirements 3. How? Detailed work definition (WBS or PBS and work package/work task details) 4. Who? Responsibility for work tasks 5. What? Detailed schedules with milestones 6. How much? Project budget and cost accounts Common Elements of Project Plan (cont’d) 7. What if? Risk plan 8. How well, what, how? Performance tracking and control 9. Other elements of the plan, as needed for, e.g. Work review and testing • Quality control • Documentation Implementation • Communication/meetings • Procurement • Contracting and contract administration • Phased (Rolling Wave)Project Planning ◼ ◼ At the start of the project, often there are too many unknowns, so the plan must be developed in phases The initial plan is somewhat rough though adequate to estimate project resources, time, and cost ❑ explain all this to the customer ❑ ◼ As the project progresses, the unknowns decrease ❑ details of the plan are filled in ❑ a more-detailed plan is created for the next most immediate phase of the project ❑ ◼ As project moves through the successive phases and stages, detailed plans are prepared with more-specific deliverables and schedules. Phased Project Planning Phased Project Planning ◼ Sometimes each phase concludes with a milestone or phase-gate review ❑ The customer or management review the deliverables and project performance ❑ If satisfied, they approve the deliverables and pay for work done thus far. ◼ They also review the detailed plan for the next phase, ❑ If satisfied they authorize the next phase. Authorization to begin the next phase represents a commitment by the customer and management to support the phase ◼ If the project has to be terminated, it is terminated at the end of a phase. ◼ Phased Project Planning System Definition ◼ System requirements and specifications elaborate in detail on the technical performance of end-item ◼ Tell designers and builders what project end-item (deliverable) must be and do ◼ Are a translation of user requirements into technical requirements ◼ Users are ignorant of most system requirements Define User/customer Requirements Define System Requirements and Specifications Create Project Master Plan Project Charter For internal projects, the charter describes the project to stakeholders. ◼ Sometimes it is used to generate interest in a proposed project. ◼ Often it is used to announce authorization of an approved project. in the organization and establish the project manager’s authority to gather and make use resources. ◼ It provide a good overview of the project and may include ❑ the project objectives and scope ❑ stakeholders and their stakes, ❑ estimated budget and schedule ❑ risks ❑ assumptions and constraints ❑ resources ❑ key roles and the people them. ◼ Sometimes it is used as the pr…

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