Reflect on the assigned readings for the week. Identify what you thought was the most important concept(s), method(s), term(s), and/or any other thing that you felt was worthy of your understanding. 

Also, provide a graduate-level response to each of the following questions:

You are hosting a large dinner party.  What are two possible risks you would encounter?  Identify at least one trigger for each.

Give an example of a risk you have chosen to accept on a previous project.  How did you make the decision to accept it?  In retrospect, was that the right decision to make? 

  1. In your own experience, have you seen companies integrate quality within their project planning processes?  If so, how and when have they done so?  If not, do you think it would have been more beneficial to address quality in one area of the overall project plan or continuously throughout the plan?
  2. Give some examples of common and special cause variation that you have witnessed.  Which of these causes of variation can be addressed through continuous improvement?
  3. Respond to the post of at least two peers, using 100 words minimum each.
  4. [Your initial post should be based upon the assigned reading for the week, so the textbook should be a source listed in your reference section and cited within the body of the text. Other sources are not required but feel free to use them if they aid in your discussion].

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CONTEMPORARY PROJECT MANAGEMENT, 4E Timothy J. Kloppenborg Vittal Anantatmula Kathryn N. Wells 1 Chapter 12 Project Quality Planning & Project Kickoff 2 Chapter 12 Core Objectives: • Define each core project quality concept & explain why each is vital • Explain what may be included in a project quality management plan • Compile a complete project management plan, including all parts covered in the last several chapters Chapter 12 Technical Objectives: • Baseline your complete project plan in Microsoft Project Chapter 12 Behavioral Objectives: • Describe the major contributions to contemporary project quality made by each of the quality gurus and by TQM, ISO, & Six Sigma • Kick off a project with effective pre-meeting preparation, a kickoff meeting, & documentation • Develop a quality-conscious approach to managing project activities & decisions General Tool Company “In short, for GTC, proper quality planning is more than good project management—it is a matter of survival!… it is imperative for the subcontractor to understand all quality and technical performance requirements prior to beginning the manufacturing process. Failing to do so can erode profit margins, damage customer relationships, and negatively impact the performance of highly engineered projects.” Project Quality Management • All the necessary work to ensure the project deliverables satisfy their intended purpose. • The first step in project quality management is plan quality management. • May be performed simultaneously with other aspects of project planning Plan quality management – “the process of identifying quality requirements and/or standards for the project and its deliverables, and documenting how the project will demonstrate compliance.” ~PMBOK® Guide 6th Edition Quality is planned at a high level for the entire project at the outset and at a detailed level just before the start of each iteration. Development of Contemporary Quality Concepts • Quality Gurus • Total Quality Management/Malcolm Baldrige • ISO 9001:2008 • Lean Six Sigma Quality Gurus – W. Edwards Deming • Understanding variation is essential to improving quality • It is important to understand how companies operate as systems • Managers need insight in order to accurately predict the future • Leaders need to understand individual motivations • Developed a system of profound knowledge based on these ideas Deming’s Profound Knowledge System Quality Gurus – Joseph Juran ➢Introduced the Quality Trilogy, which serves as basis for PMI’s quality planning, control, & assurance Other Project Quality Pioneers Breakout Session! How do the ideas of the “quality gurus” apply to real organizations? Identify specific good and bad/missing examples you have seen. Total Quality Management/Malcolm Baldrige • In 1980s it was evident that inspection was not an adequate means of discovering quality problems • Core concepts of TQM (total quality management) evolved into criteria for the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award • Include concepts such as leadership, customer focus, learning, partnership, innovation, & managing by facts Baldrige National Quality Award – Key Areas and Specific Criteria p. 390 in textbook ISO 9001:2015 • • • • • • A quality framework developed in Europe Developed by the International Organization for Standardization ISO 9001 is the quality management standard 2015 represents the latest revision of the standard Originally focused on technical standards in documenting work processes Evolved into a comprehensive set of principles ISO 9001:2008 Areas & Specific Responsibilities p. 391 in textbook Lean Six Sigma • Sigma stands for standard deviation – a statistical term for the amount of variation in data • Quality problems are measured in parts per million opportunities • Rigor of statistics in Six Sigma is not always applicable • Six Sigma uses a disciplined process DMAIC to plan and manage improvement projects DMAIC Methodology Define Measure Improve Analyze Control • A 15-step process broken up into 5 project phases • DMAIC is a continuous circular flow used as a method of implementing continuous improvement The DMAIC Methodology Breakout Session! How do (or could) the various frameworks discussed—Malcom Baldridge, ISO, Lean Six Sigma—apply to an organization you are familiar with? Core Project Quality Concepts When defining quality, you must consider the following perspectives: • Product—presence of desired attributes • Value—ratio of benefits to price • Manufacturing—consistency in goods & services • Customers—ability to satisfy given needs & expectations Four Contemporary Core Project Quality Concepts 1. 2. 3. 4. Stakeholder Satisfaction Process Management Fact-Based Management Empowered Performance 1. Stakeholder Satisfaction • Identify all stakeholders • External stakeholders – customers, suppliers, the public • Internal stakeholders – shareholders and workers at all levels • Determine relevant quality standards • Understand ultimate quality goals with respect to stakeholders • PM may facilitate a process in which important stakeholders use the quality standards to judge the project process & deliverables Developing Quality Standards Based Upon Stakeholder Requirements 1. Identify all stakeholders 2. 3. 4. 5. Prioritize among the stakeholders Understand the prioritized stakeholders’ requirements. Develop standards to ensure the requirements are met. Make tradeoff decisions. Stakeholder Satisfaction Sayings “Measure twice, cut once.” “Meet requirements, but exceed expectations.” “A smart project manager develops capable customers.” Communicate often (maybe daily) with the owner and other stakeholders 2. Process Management • To effectively manage project processes, PMs need to understand, control, & improve them • Process Understanding with a SIPOC Model • Process Control • Process Improvement with a PDCA Model process – a sequence of connected activities whose goal is to produce a good, service, or specific result Process Understanding with a SIPOC Model • All work flows from suppliers, through the project, to customers • Use a supplier-input-process-output-customer (SIPOC) model to envision this flow • Think backward from the project’s customer • Determine if the process is capable of creating project deliverables • Design quality into the processes PDE Deliverable Analysis Functional Model (based on SIPOC) Breakout Session! Using Exhibit 12.7 as a reference, construct a SIPOC model for your project and use it to discuss where your process is most vulnerable, as well as how to build quality into your project. Process Control • In order to have confidence that outputs are predictable: • • • • Establish standards Measure actual performance Calculate difference between standards & performance (variance) Strive to reduce unwanted variance • Covered further in Chapter 14 Process Improvement with a PDCA Model • Processes can be improved in a continuous or breakthrough fashion • Slow and steady improvement is a good foundation • Substantial improvement requires a breakthrough • Models based on scientific method exist to guide the improvement process • Commonly used models include the DMAIC used by Six Sigma or the Plan-DoCheck-Act (PDCA) model Plan-Do-Check-Act Model 3. Fact-Based Management • Opinions get in the way • Project decisions may need to be made quickly • Taking just enough time to get the facts often yields better results Four Aspects of Fact-Based Management 1. 2. 3. 4. Understanding variation Deciding what to measure Working correctly with data Using the resulting information appropriately Understanding Variation • 

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