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PHYS 2010 Lecture 09 (Laboratory) Projectile Motion In this experiment, you will measure and graph the x-position of a rolling steel ball as a function of time. In addition, you will learn how to use video analysis software (Tracker) to measure position as a function of time for an object and find the best-fit curve to a graph. Materials: Tracker software (free; download from course module or https://physlets.org/tracker/) BallTossOut.mov video from course module Background Projectile motion is an example of motion with constant acceleration when air resistance is ignored. An object becomes a projectile at the very instant it is released/fired/kicked and is influenced only by gravity.The x- and y-components of a projectile’s motion are independent, connected only by time of flight, t. The standard equations of kinematics apply in this case, but two times. 1 𝑥 = 𝑥0 + 𝑣0 𝑡 + 𝑎𝑡 2 2 𝑣 = 𝑣0 + 𝑎𝑡 𝑣 2 = 𝑣02 + 2𝑎∆𝑥 Make sure that you use the correct values for the variables from the correct motion under consideration. Activity 1: Tossed Ball Using Tracker, import the video “BallTossOut.mov” from the course module. Set up the coordinate axis as the ball position at frame 009. Think About It: Why do we want to use this frame? Why not start with frame 000? Establish the scale using the vertical meterstick in the middle, and trace the trajectory of the ball in flight. If you don’t remember how to do this, refer to the instructions for the Class 06 Lab – Acceleration Due to Gravity. Analysis 1. Develop a graph of x-position vs time. Think About It: Based on your graph: is the x-velocity positive or negative? How can you tell? What is the value of the x-velocity? How can you tell? Is there an x-acceleration present? How can you tll? 2. Adjust your graph to show velocity, and then acceleration Think About It: Does your velocity graph match your predictions from the position graph? What, if any, adjustments in your understanding arose from reconciling theory with data? Does your acceleration graph match your predictions from the position graph? What, if any, adjustments in your understanding arose from reconciling theory with data? 3. Develop a graph of y-position vs time. Think About It: Based on your graph: is the y-velocity at the start positive or negative? How can you tell? is the y-velocity at the start positive or negative? How can you tell? Is there a y-acceleration present? How can you tll? 4. Adjust your graph to show velocity, and then acceleration Think About It: Does your velocity graph match your predictions from the position graph? What, if any, adjustments in your understanding arose from reconciling theory with data? Does your acceleration graph match your predictions from the position graph? What, if any, adjustments in your understanding arose from reconciling theory with data? 5. Tracker has provided you with x- and y-components of the launch velocity. Using your understanding of vectors, determine the magnitude of the launch velocity, and the angle at which it is directed. 𝑣⃗ = m/s @ ° 6. If the ball had been launched with the same speed, but at an angle of 30° above the horizontal, how far would it have travelled horizontally in the time it took to return to the initial launch height? Distance = m Activity 2: Personal Experimentation Set up a video of your own. Make sure you include a scale reference for Tracker. Save or convert the file to a *.mov format. Repeat the analysis of Activity 1 (steps 1-5), and determine your value for the launch velocity. 𝑣⃗ = m/s @ ° Think About It: Does this answer make sense compared to the Activity 1 video? Why or why not? Deliverables We need an informal report describing what you did and what you learned. Imagine you are talking to your parents or your boss, and describing the activities you just completed. Make sure to include any pictures and resulting understanding you have gained. Submit a copy of this report and your video file for grading. Rubric: Video Documentation Missing 25 (0.00%) Novice 15 (30.00%) Partial 20 (40.00%) Proficient 25 (50.00%) Did not submit Video is not a continuous scene, or does not include a reference object for scale. Video does not include a standard reference, or one that would need additional information to determine scale. Clear single-shot video, edited for length, includes easily definable reference whose length is readily available. 25 (0.00%) 15 (30.00%) 20 (40.00%) 25 (50.00%) Did not submit Narrative unclear, incomplete thoughts and/or sentences. Did not include sufficient information for a person to replicate the work Narrative was fairly clear, but left out something significant (i.e, meaning of the results, numbers without units or uncertainties) Ideas were expressed in a clear and organized fashion. It was easy to figure out what was going on, and how to repeat the experiment if desired. Included discussion of results compared to accepted values (with appropriate uncertainties and units) A post-lab quiz will also be required to assess your understanding of the goals for this lab, and will count for half the grade.

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