Do not infer trends from data that fail to reach significance. A result is either significant or not, and a hypothesis is either accepted or rejected.  A result that does not reach statistical significance should be referred to as “nonsignificant” or “not significant”, rather than “insignificant”, as this means something quite different.  If you have more than one analysis, then it is often sensible to deal with each part separately within the Results section.  Do not discuss the implications of the results in the Results section.  The word “data” is the plural of the word “datum”. Hence you should write, “the data were”, rather than “the data was”.  Raw data and SPSS output should not be included here, but should instead appear in an Appendix, to which the reader is referred. 3.8 Discussion In this section, you should interpret your results, discuss the meaning of your findings, and evaluate the study. 1. Begin by restating the main results in plain English with no accompanying statistics and interpret them in terms of the experimental hypothesis or hypotheses stated in the Introduction. 2. Interpret the results in the context of those of previous studies, presented in the Introduction, i.e. whether those studies are supported or not by your results (e.g., a prior study found that X was greater than Y: do your data support or contradict that finding?). Discuss the similarities and differences between your work and previous studies to contextualise and explain your findings. For example, if your data were contradictory to your hypothesis and previous findings, or if prior research indicated an effect that you did not replicate, then you would discuss possible reasons for this. Think about what your findings mean and consider alternative explanations for your findings. If you have unexpected results you may need to cite additional literature, not given in the introduction, to explain these findings. 3. Where appropriate, provide an interpretation of the results with regards to any theories outlined in the Introduction (e.g., if a theory stated that X should be greater than Y: do your data support or contradict that theory?). Discuss any theoretical implications of your findings. 4. Your interpretation of the results should take into account the limitations of your study, e.g. threats to internal validity, the imprecision of measures, number of analyses performed (potential type 1 error) etc. Your study should not have any major flaws but, for example, you may have had to make compromises between experimental control and ecological validity, have been unable to control for some potentially confounding variables, or have been unable to measure other variables that might have explained an observed effect. Discuss the generalisability, or external validity, of the findings. Discuss whether, given the limitations of your study, alternative explanations for your findings could be offered. 5. Provide a discussion of the practical and/or clinical implications of the findings. For example, what real-life psychological phenomena might be explained by your results? 6. Give suggestions for future research in the area. This might include replication with a different participant group, methodology or stimulus set. For example, if your study was conducted with young adults, would there be merit in repeating it with children. There should be a logical rationale for the future research you suggest. 29 7. End with a concluding paragraph, stating the general conclusions that can be drawn from the study, especially with respect to the overall aim of the study which was outlined in the Introduction. Provide a reasoned commentary on the importance of the findings (this should not be overstated) by bringing together the points you made earlier in the Discussion. Notes:  The main substance of the discussion should be the interpretation of the results in the context of the psychological literature. A mistake that students often make is to present a limited interpretation of the results and a lengthy critical analysis of the study.  Better Discussions will cite relevant literature throughout, and not just with respect to points 2 and 3 above. You should develop this skill as you move through your degree. 3.9 References Your References section should be set out in the same way as every other piece of coursework, using the APA style detailed in section 10. Ensure that all work cited in the text is referenced and do not provide references for work not cited in the text. 3.10 Appendix (or Appendices) Describing certain materials in depth may be distracting or inappropriate in the main body of the text. Such material should be included in an Appendix. Although journals generally do not require these, for your assignments include, where applicable:  Details of ethical approval, participant information, consent form and debrief.  Any stimulus materials, verbatim instructions, scales etc. referred to in the Method.  The raw data (this could be a copy of your data file imported from SPSS).  The printed SPSS output for the inferential statistical tests. Each Appendix should be numbered and titled (e.g. “Appendix IV: Images of rural and urban environments). The Appendices should be numbered in the order they are referred to in the report. 3.11 Guide to producing Tables and Figures Tables and Figures must always be referred to in the text of the report (e.g. “The means and standard deviations of the data from each condition are shown in Table 1”). They should each be numbered consecutively. Graphs are always called Figures (and tables are referred to as Tables). Always make sure that they are suitably labelled and given an explanatory caption (see examples below). Clearly label the axes of graphs and the rows and columns of tables, and to include units of measurement (e.g. “Height in centimetres”, not just “Height”). It is acceptable to import SPSS charts and graphs as Figures in your report, but always use the SPSS graph editing functions to improve the presentation, by editing axes etc. (see an SPSS textbook, or use the SPSS help files). However, do not cut and paste tables from SPSS into your report. Instead, create tables in Word. The first example below (TablePaper Homework Help