Amount present relative to the maximum that can exist at the current temperature. Dew point. • Temperature at which condensation forms. © McGraw Hill 39 Moisture in the Atmosphere Types of Precipitation 1 Convectional precipitation. Heated, moisture-laden air rises and then cools below the dew point. Summer in tropical and continental climates. Orographic precipitation. Warm, moisture-laden air is forced to rise over hills or mountains and is thereby cooled. • Windward side. • Receives a great deal of precipitation. • Leeward side. • Very often dry (rain shadow). © McGraw Hill 40 Orographic Precipitation Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 41 Moisture in the Atmosphere Types of Precipitation 2 Cyclonic (frontal) precipitation. Common to the midlatitudes. In the tropics – originator of hurricanes and typhoons. Occurs where cool and warm air masses meet. Air mass. • Body of air with similar temperature, pressure, and humidity characteristics throughout. • Forms over a source region. Front. • Zone of separation between two air masses. Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 42 Moisture in the Atmosphere Storms 1 Midlatitude Cyclone. • Masses of air circulating about a region of low atmospheric pressure. • Counterclockwise rotation in Northern Hemisphere. • Warm air moves up and over cold air along a front. • Can develop into a storm. Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 43 Cyclonic Storm Formation Frontal boundary where warm and cold air meet at low pressure center. • Wave forms in frontal boundary. • Cold air plunges south. • Warm air moves north. • Cold front overtakes warm front, the storm dissipates. Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 44 Moisture in the Atmosphere Storms 2 Hurricane. • Severe tropical cyclone with winds exceeding 74 mph. • Forms in low-pressure zone over warm waters; For Example, in the Atlantic, Caribbean, or Gulf of Mexico. Typhoon. • Name for hurricanes in the western Pacific Ocean. Structure of hurricane. • • • • Eye. Eye wall. Surge. Concentric belts of rising air. © McGraw Hill 45 Characteristics of a Mature Hurricane Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 46 Moisture in the Atmosphere Storms 3 Blizzard. • Heavy snow and high winds. Tornado. • Most violent of all storms. • Smallest storm. • Common in Central U.S. in spring and fall. • Spawned in huge cumulonimbus clouds. • Funnel-shaped cloud of whirling winds that spins at speeds as high as 300 mph. • Enhanced Fujita Scale. • Waterspout. © McGraw Hill 47 Climate Regions 1 • Climate of an area is a generalization based on daily and seasonal weather conditions. • Two most important elements that differentiate weather conditions are temperature and precipitation. © McGraw Hill 48 Climate Regions 2 Köppen climate system. Based on temperature, precipitation, and natural vegetation criteria. Six broad categories. • A: tropical. • B: dry. • C: mild midlatitude. • D: harsh midlatitude. • E: arctic. • H: highland. © McGraw Hill 49 Climate Regions Tropical Climates (A) 1 Generally found between Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. Tropical rainforest (Af). • Found in equatorial low pressure zone; also along coasts extending away from the equator. • High temperatures and daily convectional rainfall all year. • Tall, dense forests. Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 50 Climate Regions Tropical Climates (A) 2 Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 51 Climate Regions Tropical Climates (A) 3 Tropical savanna (Aw) • To the north and south of rain forests. • High temperatures. • Heavy convectional rainfall in summer, dry winters. • Forests to grasslands. Tropical monsoon (Am). • Significant increase in rainfall when summer monsoon winds bring water-laden air. • Dense forests. Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 52 Climate Regions Dryland Climates (B) 1 Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 53 Climate Regions Dryland Climates (B) Hot deserts (BWh). • Found in subtropical high pressure zone. • Considerable sunshine, high temperatures. • Very little precipitation. • Shrubs in gravelly or sandy environments. • Example, Sahara, Arabian, Australian and Kalahari Deserts. © McGraw Hill 54 Climate Regions Dryland Climates (B) 2 Midlatitude deserts and semideserts (BWk, BS). Warm/hot summers and cold winters. Some convectional or frontal rainfall in summer, some snowfall in winter. Extremely dry areas known as cold deserts. Moderately dry lands known as steppes. • Among most naturally fertile soils in the world. • Vegetation: grasslands, desert shrubs. • Known for hot, dry summers and biting winter winds which sometimes bring blizzards. © McGraw Hill 55 Climate Regions Humid Midlatitude Climates (C) 1 Mediterranean (Cs). Located in transition zone between subtropical highs and the westerlies. Aside from Mediterranean region itself, generally found on the western coasts of continents in the middle latitudes; for example, Southern California, tip of South Africa, western Australia and central Chile. Warm/hot summers and mild/cool winters. Dry summer, frontal precipitation in winter. Vegetation. • Shrubs. • Small deciduous trees. Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 56 Climate Regions Humid Midlatitude Climates (C) 2 Humid subtropical (Cfa). • Located on eastern coasts on continents. • Hot, moist summers and moderate, moist winters. • Convectional summer showers, winter cyclonic storms. • Deciduous and coniferous forests. • May be affected by hurricanes. Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 57 Climate Regions Humid Midlatitude Climates (C) 3 Marine west coast (Cfb). • Prevailing winds from the sea. • Moderate temperatures in both summer and winter. • Frontal and orographic precipitation. • Deciduous and coniferous forests. Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 58 Climate Regions Harsh Or Severe Midlatitude Climates (Dfa, Dfb) Cyclonic storms are more responsible for rainfall than are convectional showers. Colder winters, shorter summers. Prevailing winds from land. Deciduous and coniferous forests. Location – middle of large continents: • Northern and central US. • Southern Canada. • Most of European portion of Russia. • Northern China. © McGraw Hill Access the text alternative for slide images. 59 Climate Regions: Subarctic Climates (Dfc, Dfd) 1 Subarctic. Cool/cold, short summers and very cold winters. Coniferous forest to mosses and lichens. Tundra. • Treeless area between the Arctic tree line and the permanently ice-covered zone. Location. • Alaska. • Northern Canada. • Northern Russia. © McGraw Hill 60 Climate Regions: Subarctic Climates (Dfc, Dfd) 2 Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 61 Climate Regions Arctic Climates (E) Arctic. • Ice cap near the poles. • Extremely cold with light precipitation. • Antarctica and Greenland are icy deserts. Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 62 Climate Regions Highland Climates (H) Lower temperatures than lowlands at the same latitude. Variety of conditions based on: • Elevation. • Prevailing winds. • Orientation of slope relative to the sun. • Valley, slope, or peak. • Ruggedness. © McGraw Hill 63 Climatic Change 1 Long-term climatic change. Significant variations over geologic time. • Ice ages. • Medieval warm period and “little ice age”. May be due to variations in: shape of Earth’s orbit, tilt of the axis, gyration of the rotation axis. Short-term climatic change. Natural processes. • Volcanic eruptions, oceanic circulation, sunspot activity. Human processes. • Enhanced greenhouse effect. © McGraw Hill 64 Indicators of Global Climate Change Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 65 Climatic Change 2 Greenhouse effect. • Certain gases in the atmosphere function as an insulating barrier, trapping infrared radiation. Global climate change. Caused by human activities that have increased the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. • Carbon dioxide: burning fossil fuels, deforestation. • Methane: natural gas and coal mining, agriculture and livestock, swamps, landfills. • Nitrous oxides: motor vehicles, industry, fertilizers. • Chlorofluorocarbons: industrial chemicals. © McGraw Hill 66 Climatic Change 3 • Over the past decade (2009 to 2018), global average temperatures were 0.9°C (1.7 °F) warmer than the preindustrial baseline. The 20 warmest years on record have occurred in the past 22 years. • The Arctic as a whole is losing its sea ice. Similarly, the ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica have shrunk and ice shelves have retreated or collapsed. • Sea levels have increased steadily over the past century. Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 67 Climatic Change • Extreme heat waves have become more common while extreme cold temperatures are less common. • Humidity levels have increased because warmer air can hold more moisture and because warmer oceans evaporate more water. • Extreme rainfall events have become more common. • The geographic ranges of plants and animals have shifted in response to changes in temperature and precipitation. © McGraw Hill 68 Climatic Change 4 Consequences of global climate change include: Rising sea levels. Changes in temperature and precipitation patterns. • Impact on soils, vegetation, agriculture. Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill 69 Because learning changes everything. ® www.mheducation.com Copyright 2022 © McGraw Hill LLC. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw Hill LLC.

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