Luke Winters Unit 302: Schools as Organisations. Explain the main points of entitlement and provisions for early year’s education? There are different types of childcare options available for early years, these include: Sure Start Children’s Centre: Working with parents right from the birth of their child, providing early years education for children, full day care, short-term care, health and family support, parenting advice as well as training and employment advice. Nursery schools:   Provide early learning and childcare for children between three and five years old.
They are often based at Sure Start Children’s Centres or linked to a primary school. Preschools and playgroups: Usually run by voluntary groups providing part-time play and early learning for under-fives. Three and four year olds can get their 15 hours of weekly free early year’s education at these providers. Day Nurseries: Often based in workplaces and rum by businesses or voluntary groups providing care and learning activities for children from birth to five years old. Child minders: Look after children under 12 in the child minder’s own home.
Associated essay: Post 16 Options for Young People and Adults
They can look after up to six children under eight years old, although no more than three of them must be aged under five. Nannies and home-based carers: Provide care for children in your home and can look after children of any age. Since 2004 all children in the UK aged three and four years old have been entitled to free places at nursery or another preschool setting (including child minders). From 1st September 2010 the Government extended these hours from 12. 5 to 15 hours for up to 38 weeks of the year.
The free entitlement provides universal access to early childhood education and care, ensuring that all children have the opportunity to benefit from early years education. The extended hours also supports parents who wish to go back to work or develop their careers through further education by providing affordable daycares. Explain the different types of schools in relation to educational stages and school governance? There are many different types of schools in the education sector; state schools as well as independent schools.
Community schools; is a category of state funded school which is ran solely by the Local Education Authority (LEA), staff are employed by the Local Authority and the land and buildings of the school is also owned by the Local Authority although the schools governing body is responsible for the running of the school. The LEA also decides which ‘admissions criteria’ to use if the school has more applicants than places. These criteria could be some of the following; • If you live in the area of the school. If the child has any siblings at the school. • If the child has a disability which makes traveling to a remote school difficult. The local Authority also provides support services, for example, psychological and special educational needs services. Pupils who attend a community school must follow the national curriculum. Community schools also help to develop strong links with the community by offering the use of their facilities and providing services i. e. childcare and adult learning programs.
Voluntary schools; there are 2 types of voluntary schools: • Controlled. • Aided. Voluntary controlled schools can be also known as religious or faith schools. In a voluntary controlled school the land and buildings are owned by a charity which is more often than not a religious organization such as a church. The local education authority employs the staff and also provides support services for the school. The charity appoints some of the members of the governing body although the local education authority is responsible for running the school.
Voluntary aided schools; as with a voluntary school the land and buildings are usually owned by a charity such as a church but the governing body is responsible for running the school and also contribute to building and maintenance costs. Voluntary aided schools are partly funded by the local education authority, partly by the charity and by the governing body who will also employ its own staff. Pupils who attend a voluntary aided school have to follow the national curriculum and support services are provided by the local education authority if needed.
Trust schools; are state funded foundation schools which receive extra support from a charitable trust that is made up of partners e. g. business or educational charities who work together for the benefit of the school. Any maintained school that is a primary, secondary or special school can become a trust school and will remain local authority maintained. Having a trust status will enable schools to raise standards through strengthening new and existing long term partnerships between schools and external partners, as well as broaden opportunities for pupils and support a child’s all round development.
Specialist schools; Children who have a statement of special educational needs (SEN) can and usually are educated in mainstream schools if the school has provisions that are suitable for that child, however children with SEN can also be educated in specialist schools. Special schools usually take children with particular types of special needs. The majority of a schools funding is provided by the department for education and skills (DFES) through the local education authority, however not all schools for pupils with SEN are maintained by the local authority and are funded by fees that are paid by the parents or charitable trust funds.
Independent/private schools; these schools are not maintained by the local authority and are independent in their finances and governance. Independent schools are funded by a combination of tuition fees that are paid by parents and income from investments. Only half of independent schools are of ‘charitable status’; all donations that are made to public schools that are supported by local government allows them to claim charitable deductions. Independent schools do not have to follow the national curriculum and the admissions policy is determined and administered by the head teacher along with the governing body.
All independent schools have to register with the DFE (department for education) under the Education Act 2002 and applications of new schools must be made before a school begins to function and admit pupils. Regulations made by the Education Act 2002 sets out standards that all independent schools in England must satisfy as a condition of registration. Free schools; free schools are an all ability, nonprofit making, state funded school that are set up in response to what local people say they want and need in order to improve education for children in their area.
Free schools can be set up by a varied range of proposes i. e. universities, businesses, educational groups and parents who would like to make a difference to a child’s education. These schools are being set up in response to a demand in local areas where there are not enough places in mainstream schools. Free schools have to meet rigorous standards and are subject to the same Ofsted inspections as all state schools. Explain what further training is available for post 16 adults and young people? The choices Post 16 are: • Continuing to study at a Sixth Form Continuing to study at a College of Further Education • Applying for an Apprenticeship – or a similar work based learning programme • Entering the labour market – although some form of continued training should be attached to the offer of employment By 2013 everyone will have to be in some form of recognized education and training up to the age of 17. This rises to 18 by 2015. Further Education (FE) An extra year at an FE College is an option if you want to boost your grades, gain more skills or improve existing ones.
You’ll need to check with individual colleges to see if there would be a charge for this additional education. Continuing at school sixth form is also an option depending on who offers the course you are interested in. Apprenticeships At 18 you can still go into work-based learning. This option usually involves taking recognized courses such as apprenticeships. With an advanced apprenticeship it’s likely that you would work towards an NVQ level 3 qualification. You would spend most of your time at work and some time at either a college or a training centre.
It’s possible to take apprenticeships in a wide variety of job areas. Higher Education (HE) If you’re thinking about higher education you’ll probably be looking to go to either an HE college or a university. There are a range of HE qualifications in 100’s of different subjects and subject combinations. Higher education could be for you if you need a degree for the career you want to enter or if you want to study a subject or set of subjects in more depth. It could also be a route to consider if you’re unsure about your future career and want to keep your options open.
Work Jobs for 18 year olds vary depending on where you live and the type and level of work you’re looking for. The wider and more flexible your search the more likely you are to find something suitable. Some firms advertise management or other traineeships for holders of A Levels (or equivalent) but there’s often a lot of competition for these vacancies. Gap Year Many young people choose to take a ‘gap year’ between finishing sixth form or college and starting higher education. There’s a range of things that you could do such as traveling, volunteering or paid employment.
You could consider it as an option if you want to travel before entering higher education or need a bit of time before you decide what to do next. It could also be an option if you need to earn some money or get some work experience before you enter HE. If you plan on taking a gap year before entering HE you will need to decide whether or not to apply for an HE course this year and defer entry until next year. There are lots of different types of qualifications. Some of the main qualifications include: AS and A Levels Usually studied over 2 years.
Most people will study for their AS levels in the first year, and then continue them at A2 level in the second year. Diplomas A new qualification that combines classroom and practical learning. Available at three levels – Foundation, Higher and Advanced, (equivalent to GCSEs or A levels depending on the level …) and usually studied over 2 years. NVQs There are 5 levels of NVQ and people normally choose to study them to compliment a paid or voluntary job. For example, someone working in an admin office role may take an NVQ in Business and Administration.
Apprenticeships Apprenticeships give you training and experience in a ‘hands-on’ role, whilst helping you work towards a qualification (such as BTEC or NVQ) at the same time. BTECs Six levels of BTEC are available, which are equivalent to GSCE (Levels 1 & 2), A-level (Level 3) and university degree (Levels 4-6). Key Skills Key skills are designed to get you ready for the working world. You’ll gain these skills as you study for qualifications or vocations. They are split into 6 categories over 5 levels. Explain the responsibilities of the following? School Governors
The school governors have a range of duties and a general responsibility for the conduct of the school to promote high standards of educational achievement including: ensuring the curriculum is balanced and broadly based; setting targets for pupils achievement; managing the school’s finances; appointing staff and reviewing staff performance and pay. Senior Management Team The senior management team of a school will respect the position of the headteacher who bears the ultimate responsibility for success or failure in pursuit of both the school’s aims and the requirements of government departments.
The head is the ultimate ‘leader’ but the activity of leadership is one that can be shared among the senior management team and beyond in the case of curriculum area responsibilities. The team must be prepared to line up in support of the head teacher’s initiatives, helping to turn them into practical action and sharing his vision. They must also be confident in putting forward their own ideas and points of view in a constructive and cooperative way. It is important that the staff and governors of a school work together co-operatively.
To steer this wider team is easier if all members want to work in the same direction. The senior management must therefore be able to communicate effectively, initiating and motivating discussion within the wider team in order to share the initial vision and build upon it. The management must be able to enlist the support and capture the imagination of all those people, diverse in both background and personality, who must work together to evolve and develop the curriculum that we deliver to our children. Leadership is required in all areas of school life.
The development of the curriculum and the education we provide is underpinned by the management of staff and their professional development, the buildings and grounds that provide the environment for learning, the careful handling of budgets, resources for learning and the management of an ethos that leads to a constructive approach to school life by children and adults alike. Teachers The responsibilities and duties of a teacher are many and varied. Teachers act as facilitators for incorporating and encouraging intellectual and social development in the formative years of a student’s life.
The emphasis that education helps uplift someone socially, intellectually, emotionally, and personally is what a teacher fosters in children all through preschool, high school and college. A preschool teacher plays a pivotal role in a child’s development, and although, the role of a preschool, high school and a college teacher may differ to meet specific age and subject criteria, it cannot be argued that the duties and responsibilities of a teacher will always remain the same. The class or subject teacher is responsible for the preparation and maintenance of an appropriate learning environment within their own class and/or subject area.
Working as part of a team the teacher decides how best to use the resources allocated to the class which includes teaching assistants as well as the necessary equipment and materials for learning activities. Support Staff Adults who work in classrooms alongside teachers have various job titles including: learning support assistant; classroom assistant; special needs assistant and non-teaching assistant. ‘’Teaching assistant’’ is now the preferred term for adults (in paid employment) whose main role is to assist the teacher in a primary, secondary or special school
A teaching assistant’s role will depend on the school and experience/qualifications. There may be different requirements between teaching assistants even within the same school. A teaching assistant may have a general role working with different classes in a year group/key stage or specific responsibilities for a pupil, subject area or age group. Within a schools support system there are also other supporting roles these can include: Administrative Assistant – An administrative assistant is one of the most important positions in the entire school.
A school administrative assistant often knows the day-to-day operations of a school as well as anyone. They are also the person who communicates most often with parents. Their job includes answering phones, mailing letters, organizing files, and a host of other duties. A good administrative assistant screens for the school administrator and makes their job as a whole a lot easier. Encumbrance Clerk – The encumbrance clerk has one of the most difficult jobs in the entire school. The encumbrance clerk is not only in charge of school payroll and billing, but a host of other financial responsibilities.
The encumbrance clerk has to be able to account for every cent a school has spent and received. An encumbrance clerk must be organized and must stay current with all laws dealing with school finance. School Nutritionist– A school nutritionist is responsible for creating a menu that meets state nutrition standards for all meals served at school. They are also responsible for ordering the food that will be served. They also collect and keep up with all monies taken in and spent by the nutrition program.
A school nutritionist is also responsible for keeping track of who is eating and for which students qualifies for free/reduced lunches. Teacher‘s Aide – A teacher’s aide assist a classroom teacher in a variety of areas that can include making copies, grading papers, working with small groups of students, contacting parents, and a variety of other tasks. Paraprofessional – A paraprofessional is a trained individual who assists a special education teacher with their day-to-day operations. A paraprofessional may be assigned to one particular student or may help with a class a whole.
A paraprofessional works in support of the teacher and does not provide direct instruction themselves. Nurse – A school nurse provides general first aid for students in the school. The nurse may also administer medication to students who need it or are required medication. A school nurse keeps pertinent records on when they see students, what they saw, and how they treated it. A school nurse may also teach students about health and health related issues. Cook – A cook is responsible for the preparation and serving of food to the entire school.
A cook is also responsible for the process of cleaning up the kitchen and the cafeteria. Custodian – A custodian is responsible for the day-to-day cleaning of the school building as a whole. Their duties include vacuuming, sweeping, mopping, cleaning bathrooms, emptying trash, etc. They may also assist in other areas such as mowing, moving heavy items, etc. Maintenance – Maintenance is responsible for keeping all the physical operations of a school running. If something is broke then maintenance is responsible for repairing it. These may include electrical and lighting, air and heating, and mechanical issues.
Computer Technician – A computer technician is responsible for assisting school personnel with any computer issue or question that may arise. Those may include issues with email, internet, viruses, etc. A computer technician should provide service and maintenance to all school computers to keep them running so that they may be used as needed. They are also responsible for server maintenance and the installation of filter programs and features. Bus Driver – A bus driver provides safe transportation for students to and from school.
Explain how the following regulatory bodies monitor and enforce legislative frameworks? • Health and safety executive • School specific regulatory bodies Regulatory bodies relevant to the education sector exist to monitor and enforce the relevant legislations. For example, general bodies such as the Health and Safety Executive are responsible for ensuring the enforcement of health and safety matters in the workplace including schools. While school specific regulatory bodies such as Ofsted are responsible for ensuring standards are maintained in a wide range of education settings.
Ofsted is the Office for Standards in Education, Children’s Services and Skills. Ofsted regulates and inspects childcare and children’s social care. Ofsted also inspects: schools; colleges; initial teacher education; work based learning and skills training; adult and community learning; education and training in prisons and other secure establishments and the Children and Family Court Advisory Service. Explain why schools have policies and procedures? All schools have policies and procedures that help maintain a structured and consistent learning environment.
These policies relate to the legal requirements within schools and provide guidance on the procedures for implementing the policies in the school. Summarise the policies and procedures schools may have relating to: A) Staff. All schools have policies and procedures in place to support staff in their management of situations these may involve violence, threatening behaviour or abuse amongst other policies which are all legal requirements within the setting of a school, you must adhere to these policies and familiarise yourself on where these policies can be found within the school surroundings.
Within my setting all policies can be found on the schools internal computer system for staff to access as and when they need to. Policies can also provide prospective employees, governors and parents of prospective pupils with valuable information. For example, a prospective parent might wish to see a school’s homework policy or behaviours policy before deciding whether to apply for their child to attend the school. Similarly, a prospective employee may wish to see the school’s staff development policy, its performance management policy or its leave of absence policy before deciding whether to accept a position at the school.
Policies should also enable school staff, governors, parents, LEA officers and Ofsted inspectors to see at a glance what principles they can expect to see applied at your school. B) Pupil Welfare. The schools policy for safeguarding children should include information on the roles and responsibilities of staff members and the procedures for dealing with child protection issues. This should include: 1) All staff members should attend child protection training. 2) The school will comply with the Local Safeguarding Children Board (LSCB) procedures 3) If any member of staff is concerned about a child he/she must inform a senior colleague.
The member of staff must record information regarding such concerns on the same day. This record must give a clear, precise and factual account of their observation. 4) Confidentiality is of crucial importance and incidents should only be discussed with the relevant person, e. g. senior colleague. 5) The head teacher will decide whether the concerns should be referred to external agencies, such as the social services and/or the police. 6) The school should work cooperatively with parents unless this is inconsistent with the need to ensure the child’s safety. ) If a referral is made to social services, the head teacher will ensure that a report of the concerns is sent to the social worker dealing with the case within 48 hours. 8) Particular attention will be paid to the attendance and development of any child identified as ‘at risk’ or who has been placed on the Child Protection Register. C) Teaching and Learning. Schools should be able to explain their approach to the curriculum and to show how they meet the statutory requirements for all learners, including any variations to meet the needs of individual pupils.
Detailed information about a school’s curriculum plans can be found in: policy statements for the whole curriculum and for each subject of the curriculum; schemes of work and teaching plans for pupils in each key stage; class or group timetables and Individual Education Plans. Developing curriculum plans involves planning learning activities that will provide all pupils with appropriate opportunities to learn which reflect the range of needs, interests and the past achievements of pupils in each year group at each key stage.
Curriculum plans include: • Policy statements showing the balance between different parts of the curriculum at each key stage. • Practical guidelines for staff assisting the delivery of each curriculum subject e. g. general information about resources and important teaching points. • Long term-plans showing the content and skills in the programme of study for every subject at each key stage and hoe these are covered, including links between subjects as well as progression, consolidation and diversification for pupils across units. Medium-term plans defining the intended learning outcomes for units of work, including information on learning activities, recording and assessment methods. • Short- term plans setting out detailed information on learning activities for pupils in each class on a weekly and daily basis, including lesson plans and/or activity plans with details of specific targets, organisation, resources and strategies to support learning. D) Equality, diversity and inclusion All schools have an equal opportunities policy with procedures to ensure it is implemented.
These policies and procedures must be followed together with any relevant legal requirements when dealing with these issues As a member of staff you should: • Challenge discrimination or prejudice when necessary (For example, if a colleague makes an inappropriate comment about a person’s race, culture or disability, you should tell them why it is unacceptable to express their views in this way. ) • State that you will not condone views that discriminate against another person. • Provide support for children and adults who experience discrimination or prejudice by encouraging them to respond with positive action.
E) Parental Engagement. Parents and families play a fundamental role in helping children achieve their full potential in education by supporting them in their learning and developing within their own homes. By working together with the child’s school parents can create a learning environment to help reinforce lessons that are learned at school. Homework policies contribute towards building responsibilities and self-discipline in a student. Homework should provide a student with the opportunity to apply the information they have learned in class, complete unfinished class assignments and develop independence within he individual. Home School Agreement: can raise standards and contribute to school success by providing structure for partnerships between home and schools on issues such as; pupils progress, information on what pupils will be taught and any concerns that may affect the pupils ability to learn. Parents are able to support and help their child’s learning at home with more success and confidence. Evaluate how school policies and procedures may be developed and communicated? Schools need to ensure that polices are in place and regularly revised and updated.
Each policy will be dated and have a date for its revision. There are model policies available on the internet through local education authorities to assist the schools in drawing them up as this can be a time consuming process. Depending on the policy, the person responsible for a curriculum area (for example, the numeracy coordinator) may produce a draft policy and then have it checked by other staff during a meeting. It will then need to be agreed or ratified by the governing body before it takes effect.
Although staff will not be required to know the contents of every school policy, they should have read and know their responsibilities, in particular with regards to the safeguarding policy, health and safety policy and the behaviour management policy. Summarise the roles and responsibilities of national and local government for education policy and practice? National government. The Department for Education is responsible for education and children’s services. Basically, this means that they are responsible for. • Setting the national curriculum. •Early years foundation stage.
Which the schools and nurseries operate and also looks into new ways to develop the quality of service available to children under the five outcomes of every child matters. •Enjoy and achieve. •Stay safe. •Be healthy. • Achieve economic well-being. • Make a positive contribution. Other roles and responsibilities of the Department of Education. •Funding research into Education based projects concerning children and young people. • Developing workforce reform such as the 2020 children’s workforce strategy. • Promoting integrated working for those who work with children and young people. Develop the role of the third sector, which is non-government organisations, such as voluntary, community organisations and charities that work with children and young people. Local government. Responsibility is to provide services to all the schools in the community. The local Education authority is responsible for providing. •Promoting community cohesion. • School management issues. • Behaviour management. • The development of school policies. • Staff training and development. • Special educational needs. Local authorities need to provide documents which sets out their own aims, vision and boundaries.
They will have policies which communicate their own leadership for schools in the community. The local authority will employ specialist advisers for different aspects of the curriculum. They will also have people with their own area of expertise in place for pupils with challenging behaviour and special educational needs. Majority of these services will be provided free to schools by the LEA, but in some circumstances the school could be expected to pay, this will be when specialist teachers need to come into the school setting.
The LEA will be responsible for informing the schools in the community of changes to the education policy and they will then be given extra training within the area of changes. It is the responsibility of all the schools to make sure they are up to date with all the current policies which are put in place for children, young people and their families. One of these being The every child matters frameworks which is one of the largest provisions which has been put in place for developing their roles in the community.
They should have their own policies in place that will meet the expected national requirements and also follow the LEA guidelines. There will be some schools which could be chosen to trial new ideas to develop the national policies and the curriculum; if this is successful then these will be put in place. There are an extensive range of organisations that will work with children and young people. All these organisations will delegate with each other as a team and share their knowledge and experiences to achieve the best interest of children and young people, by doing this they will develop links for pupil support for.
Social services. Will work with schools if certain information comes to light about pupils or if they need to gather information for court reasons. Children’s services. Is based on the framework Every Child Matters outcomes. These are basically based in different areas of professionals including. •Education. • Health. • Early years. • Child care. • Social services. Youth services. These will work with secondary schools, but will be more involved with the training and provision of young people from the age of 14 and beyond. National health services.
There are many different services which will work with and within the school setting; these may be employed by the national health services and the primary care trust. This will include. •Speech therapists. • Occupational therapists. • Physiotherapists. Explain the role of schools in national policies relating to children, young people and families? As part of the National Governments incentive to help provide backing and encouragement to practitioners in schools 2 new funding programs were introduced by the Department for Children, Schools and Families as part of the Government Children Plan.
These programs; Every Child a Talker (ECAT) and Social and Emotional Aspects of Development (SEAD). These were launched to increase the skills of early year’s specialists and were a part of the government’s wider pledge to the education workforce development. These packages were designed to address the need for children in schools to experience a language rich setting through staff in ensuring that they work successfully with both parents and families.
Through SEAD, staff in schools would gain the knowledge and understanding to help engage parents more effectively in order for them to be better prepared to support their child’s social and emotional needs. It was the abuse and ultimate death of Victoria Climbie in 2000 which prompted changes in children’s services. The Every Child Matters paper set out a national agenda and plan with the aim of providing more services that were accessible for the needs of children, young people and families which stated that schools and other child care prov

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