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Course: EECE326–Communication Systems I w/Lab Lab 3: Signal Spectral Analysis Objective The objective of this lab is to perform spectral analysis using the mixed signal oscilloscope. At the end of this lab, you should be able to perform the following: 1. Generate signals using the Agilent function generator. 2. Utilize the Tektronix oscilloscope to analyze signals in both time and frequency domains. Note: This lab will be simulated on multisim, which includes both the Agilent function generator and the Tektronix oscilloscope The user manuals for both the function generator and the oscilloscope are uploaded to blackboard. You might need to consult them to perform certain functions. Signal Generation and Analysis In this part, you will generate three signals using the signal generator and utilize the mixed signal oscilloscope to analyze it, IN both time and frequency domain. Repeat the experiment in 2.1 for each of the following signals: i Sinusoidal signal: period T 0 = 2 µ s and peak to peak voltage V pp = 4 V. ii Square signal: period T 0 = 10 µ s and peak to peak voltage V pp = 20 mV. iii AM DSB-SC signal: period T 0 = 0.1 µ s and peak to peak voltage V pp = 4 V. • The Agilent function generator creates AM, FM, and PSK signals. Consult the user manual for more information 2.1 Experiment 1. Set the signal generator to output a Sinusoidal signal with a period T 0 = 2 µ s and peak to peak voltage V pp = 4 V 2. Connect the oscilloscope channel 1 to the output of the signal generator. 3. Verify the period and amplitude of the time domain signal using oscilloscope measurement tool. Is that what you expect? (a) Take screen shots of the time domain signal showing its period and peak to peak voltage. 4. Via the the MATH button on your oscilloscope, use Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) function to see the signal frequency response of the signals. Make sure you go over the “MATH FFT” section in the Tektronics user manual. (a) Is the frequency response what you expect? What is the peak frequency of the frequency response (i.e., frequency of the highest value of the frequency response). (b) Conﬁrm analytically the Fourier transform of the signal (i.e., calculate and sketch the Fourier transform). (c) Take screen shots of the signal’s frequency response showing its peak frequency. 5. Vary the frequency of the signal f 0 from 10 kHz to 1 MHz (a) What is the impact of this variation on the Fourier transform. (b) Is that what you expect? Why? (c) Indicate the peak frequency for f 0 = 20 KHz, 200 KHz, and 1 MHz. 6. Vary the peak to peak voltage of the signal V pp from 200 mV to 1 V (a) What is the impact of this variation on the Fourier transform. (b) Is that what you expect? Why? What to submit? The following should be compressed into one zip ﬁle 1. A report including • Answers to any lab questions • Any Figures (properly captioned and numbered). Label your axes and title your ﬁgures. • A copy of all commented MATLAB codes. • Screenshots of any Simulink/Multisim designs 2. Your simulation ﬁles (m-ﬁles, slx-ﬁles, ms14-ﬁles ) User’s Guide Publication Number 33120-90006 (order as 33120-90104 manual set) Edition 6, March 2002 © Copyright Agilent Technologies, Inc. 1994-2002 For Safety information, Warranties, and Regulatory information, see the pages following the Index. Agilent 33120A 15 MHz Function / Arbitrary Waveform Generator Cover Page for Web Version ONLY (User’s Guide) Note: Unless otherwise indicated, this manual applies to all Serial Numbers. The Agilent Technologies 33120A is a high-performance 15 MHz synthesized function generator with built-in arbitrary waveform capability. Its combination of bench-top and system features makes this function generator a versatile solution for your testing requirements now and in the future. Convenient bench-top features 10 standard waveforms Built-in 12-bit 40 MSa/s arbitrary waveform capability Easy-to-use knob input Highly visible vacuum-fluorescent display Instrument state storage Portable, ruggedized case with non-skid feet Flexible system features Four downloadable 16,000-point arbitrary waveform memories GPIB (IEEE-488) interface and RS-232 interface are standard SCPI (Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments) compatibility Agilent IntuiLink Arb Waveform Generation Software for Microsoft® Windows® included Agilent 33120A 15 MHz Function / Arbitrary Waveform Generator Page 1 (User’s Guide) The Front Panel at a Glance 1 2 3 4 2 Function / Modulation keys Menu operation keys Waveform modify keys Single / Internal Trigger key (Burst and Sweep only) 5 6 7 8 Recall / Store instrument state key Enter Number key Shift / Local key Enter Number “units” keys Front-Panel Number Entry You can enter numbers from the front-panel using one of three methods. Use the knob and the arrow keys to modify the displayed number. Use the arrow keys to edit individual digits. Increments the flashing digit. Decrements the flashing digit. Moves the flashing digit to the right. Moves the flashing digit to the left. Use the “Enter Number” mode to enter a number with the appropriate units. Use “Enter” for those operations that do not require units to be specified (AM Level, Offset, % Duty, and Store/Recall State). 3 The Front-Panel Menu at a Glance The menu is organized in a top-down tree structure with three levels. A: MODulation MENU 1: AM SHAPE Õ Õ 2: AM SOURCE 6: BURST PHAS Õ Õ 2: STOP F Õ Õ 3: FM SHAPE 7: BURST SRC B: SWP (Sweep) MENU 1: START F Õ Õ 4: BURST CNT 8: FSK FREQ 3: SWP TIME Õ Õ Õ 9: FSK RATE 5: BURST RATE Õ Õ 10: FSK SRC 4: SWP MODE C: EDIT MENU* 1: NEW ARB Õ [ 2: POINTS ] Õ [ 3: LINE EDIT ] Õ [ 4: POINT EDIT ] Õ [ 5: INVERT ] Õ [ 6: SAVE AS ] Õ 7: DELETE * The commands enclosed in square brackets ( [ ] ) are “hidden” until you make a selection from the NEW ARB command to initiate a new edit session. D: SYStem MENU 1: OUT TERM Õ 2: POWER ON E: Input / Output MENU 1: HPIB ADDR Õ 2: INTERFACE Õ 3: ERROR Õ F: CALibration MENU* 1: SECURED or [ 1: UNSECURED ] Õ 4: TEST 3: BAUD RATE Õ Õ [ 2: CALIBRATE ] Õ 5: COMMA 4: PARITY Õ Õ Õ 6: REVISION 5: LANGUAGE 3: CAL COUNT Õ 4: MESSAGE * The commands enclosed in square brackets ( [ ] ) are “hidden” unless the function generator is UNSECURED for calibration. 4 Display Annunciators Adrs Rmt Trig AM FM Ext FSK Burst Swp ERROR Offset Shift Num Arb Function generator is addressed to listen or talk over a remote interface. Function generator is in remote mode (remote interface). Function generator is waiting for a single trigger or external trigger (Burst, Sweep). AM modulation is enabled. FM modulation is enabled. Function generator is set for an external modulation source (AM, FSK, Burst). FSK (frequency-shift keying) modulation is enabled. Burst modulation is enabled. Sweep mode is enabled. Hardware or remote interface command errors are detected. The waveform is being output with an offset voltage. “Shift” key has been pressed. Press “Shift” again to turn off. “Enter Number” mode is enabled. Press “Shift-Cancel” to disable. Arbitrary waveform function is enabled. Sine waveform function is enabled. Square waveform function is enabled. Triangle waveform function is enabled. Ramp waveform function is enabled. To review the display annunciators, hold down the Shift key as you turn on the function generator. 5 The Rear Panel at a Glance 1 2 3 4 Chassis ground Power-line fuse-holder assembly Power-line voltage setting AM modulation input terminal 5 External Trigger / FSK / Burst modulation input terminal 6 GPIB (IEEE-488) interface connector 7 RS-232 interface connector Use the front-panel Input / Output Menu to: Select the GPIB or RS-232 interface (see chapter 4). Set the GPIB bus address (see chapter 4). Set the RS-232 baud rate and parity (see chapter 4). 6 In This Book Quick Start Chapter 1 prepares the function generator for use and helps you get familiar with a few of its front-panel features. Front-Panel Menu Operation Chapter 2 introduces you to the front-panel menu and describes some of the function generator’s menu features. Features and Functions Chapter 3 gives a detailed description of the function generator’s capabilities and operation. You will find this chapter useful whether you are operating the function generator from the front panel or over the remote interface. Remote Interface Reference Chapter 4 contains reference information to help you program the function generator over the remote interface. Error Messages Chapter 5 lists the error messages that may appear as you are working with the function generator. Each listing contains enough information to help you diagnose and solve the problem. Application Programs Chapter 6 contains several remote interface application programs to help you develop programs for your application. Tutorial Chapter 7 discusses the fundamentals of signal generation and modulation techniques. Specifications Chapter 8 lists the function generator’s specifications. For information on using the Phase-Lock Option for the 33120A, refer to the User’s and Service Guide included with the Option 001. If you have questions relating to the operation of the 33120A, call 1-800-452-4844 in the United States, or contact your nearest Agilent Technologies Sales Office. If you believe your 33120A has failed, refer to “Operating Checklist”, “Types of Service Available”, and “Repackaging for Shipment” at the beginning of chapter 6 in the 33120A Service Guide. 7 8 Contents Chapter 1 Quick Start To prepare the function generator for use 15 If the function generator does not turn on 16 To adjust the carrying handle 18 To set the output frequency 19 To set the output amplitude 20 To set a dc offset voltage 21 To set the duty cycle 22 To output a stored arbitrary waveform 23 To output a dc voltage 24 To store the instrument state 25 To rack mount the function generator 27 Chapter 2 Front-Panel Menu Operation Contents Front-panel menu reference 31 A front-panel menu tutorial 33 To select the output termination 40 To output a modulated waveform 41 To output an FSK waveform 44 To output a burst waveform 47 To output a frequency sweep 49 To trigger a burst or sweep 51 To turn off the comma separator 52 Chapter 3 Features and Functions Output Configuration 55 Amplitude Modulation (AM) 71 Frequency Modulation (FM) 76 Burst Modulation 81 Frequency-Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation 90 Frequency Sweep 94 Triggering 98 Arbitrary Waveforms 103 System-Related Operations 109 Remote Interface Configuration 114 Calibration Overview 118 Power-On and Reset State 123 9 Contents Contents Chapter 4 Remote Interface Reference SCPI Command Summary 127 Simplified Programming Overview 136 Using the APPLy Command 138 Output Configuration Commands 145 AM Modulation Commands 154 FM Modulation Commands 157 Burst Modulation Commands 160 Frequency-Shift Keying (FSK) Commands 167 Frequency Sweep Commands 170 Arbitrary Waveform Commands 174 Triggering 186 System-Related Commands 188 Calibration Commands 193 RS-232 Interface Configuration 195 RS-232 Interface Commands 200 The SCPI Status Registers 201 Status Reporting Commands 209 An Introduction to the SCPI Language 211 Halting an Output in Progress 216 To set the GPIB address 217 To select the remote interface 218 To set the baud rate 219 To set the parity 220 SCPI Conformance Information 221 IEEE-488 Conformance Information 225 Chapter 5 Error Messages Execution Errors 229 Self-Test Errors 237 Calibration Errors 238 Arbitrary Waveform Errors 240 10 Contents Chapter 6 Application Programs BASIC Programs 244 C Language Programs 244 QuickBASIC Language Programs 247 Using the APPLy Command 248 Using the Low-Level Commands 252 Downloading an Arbitrary Waveform over GPIB 255 Using the Status Registers 261 Downloading an Arbitrary Waveform over RS-232 267 Chapter 7 Tutorial Contents Direct Digital Synthesis 273 Signal Imperfections 276 Creating Arbitrary Waveforms 278 Output Amplitude Control 280 Floating Signal Generators 282 Attributes of AC Signals 283 Modulation 287 Chapter 8 Specifications Frequency Characteristics 298 Sinewave Spectral Purity 298 Signal Characteristics 298 Output Characteristics 298 Modulation Characteristics 299 Frequency Sweep 299 System Characteristics 299 General Specifications 300 Product Dimensions 301 Index 303 Declaration of Conformity 309 11 Contents Contents 12 1 1 Quick Start Quick Start One of the first things you will want to do with your function generator is to become acquainted with its front panel. We have written the exercises in this chapter to prepare the function generator for use and help you get familiar with some of the front-panel operations. The front panel has two rows of keys to select various functions and operations. Most keys have a shifted function printed in blue above the key. To perform a shifted function, press Shift (the Shift annunciator will turn on). Then, press the key that has the desired label above it. For example, to select the AM (amplitude modulation) function, press Shift AM (the shifted version of the key). If you accidentally press Shift , just press it again to turn off the Shift annunciator. Most keys also have a number printed in green next to the key. To enable the number mode, press Enter Number (the Num annunciator will turn on). Then, press the keys that have the desired numbers printed next to them. For example, to select the number “10”, press Enter Number 1 0 (next to the and Recall keys). If you accidentally press Enter Number , just press Shift Cancel to turn off the Num annunciator. 14 Chapter 1 Quick Start To prepare the function generator for use 1 To prepare the function generator for use The following steps help you verify that the function generator is ready for use. 1 Check the list of supplied items. Verify that you have received the following items with your function generator. If anything is missing, contact your nearest Agilent Technologies Sales Office. One power cord. One RS-232 serial cable. á This User’s Guide. One Service Guide. One folded Quick Reference card. Certificate of Calibration. Agilent IntuiLink Arb Waveform Generation Software. 2 Connect the power cord and turn on the function generator. The front-panel display will light up while the function generator performs its power-on self-test. The GPIB bus address is displayed. Notice that the function generator powers up in the sine wave function at 1 kHz with an amplitude of 100 mV peak-to-peak (into a 50W termination). To review the power-on display with all annunciators turned on, hold down Shift as you turn on the function generator. 3 Perform a complete self test. The complete self-test performs a more extensive series of tests than those performed at power-on. Hold down Shift as you press the Power switch to turn on the function generator; hold down the key for more than 5 seconds. The self-test will begin when you release the key. If the self-test is successful, “PASS” is displayed on the front panel. If the self-test is not successful, “FAIL” is displayed and the ERROR annunciator turns on. See the Service Guide for instructions on returning the function generator to Agilent for service. 15 Chapter 1 Quick Start If the function generator does not turn on If the function generator does not turn on Use the following steps to help solve problems you might experience when turning on the function generator. If you need more help, see the Service Guide for instructions on returning the function generator to Agilent for service. 1 Verify that there is ac power to the function generator. First, verify that the function generator’s Power switch is in the “On” position. Also, make sure that the power cord is firmly plugged into to the power module on the rear panel. You should also make sure that the power source you plugged the function generator into is energized. 2 Verify the power-line voltage setting. The line voltage is set to the proper value for your country when the function generator is shipped from the factory. Change the voltage setting if it is not correct. The settings are: 100, 120, 220, or 240 Vac (for 230 Vac operation, use the 220 Vac setting). See the next page if you need to change the line-voltage setting. 3 Verify that the power-line fuse is good. The function generator is shipped from the factory with a 500 mAT fuse installed. This is the correct fuse for all line voltages. See the next page if you need to change the power-line fuse. To replace the 500 mAT fuse, order Agilent part number 2110-0458. 16 Chapter 1 Quick Start If the function generator does not turn on 1 1 Remove the power cord. Remove the fuse-holder assembly from the rear panel. 2 Remove the line-voltage selector from the assembly. Fuse: 500 mAT (for all line voltages) Part Number: 2110-0458 3 Rotate the line-voltage selector until the correct voltage appears in the window. 4 Replace the fuse-holder assembly in the rear panel. 100, 120, 220 (230), or 240 Vac Verify that the correct line voltage is selected and the power-line fuse is good. 17 Chapter 1 Quick Start To adjust the carrying handle To adjust the carrying handle To adjust the position, grasp the handle by the sides and pull outward. Then, rotate the handle to the desired position. Bench-top viewing positions 18 Carrying position Chapter 1 Quick Start To set the output frequency 1 To set the output frequency At power-on, the function generator outputs a sine wave at 1 kHz with an amplitude of 100 mV peak-to-peak (into a 50W termination). The following steps show you how to change the frequency to 1.2 MHz. Freq 1 Enable the frequency modify mode. The displayed frequency is either the power-on value or the previous frequency selected. When you change functions, the same frequency is used if the present value is valid for the new function. 1.000,000,0 KHz Enter Number 1 . 2 2 Enter the magnitude of the desired frequency. 1 Notice that the Num annunciator turns on and “ENTER NUM” flashes on the display, indicating that the number mode is enabled. 1.2 To cancel the number mode, press Shift Cancel . ¾ MHz m Vpp 3 Set the units to the desired value. The units are selected using the arrow keys on the right side of the front panel. As soon as you select the units, the function generator outputs the waveform with the displayed frequency. To turn off the flashing digit, move the cursor to the left of the display using the arrow keys. 1.200,000,0 MHz 1 You can also use the knob and arrow keys to enter a number. See “Front-Panel Number Entry” on page 3 for more information. 19 Chapter 1 Quick Start To set the output amplitude To set the output amplitude At power-on, the function generator outputs a sine wave with an amplitude of 100 mV peak-to-peak (into a 50W termination). The following steps show you how to change the amplitude to 50 mVrms. Ampl 1 Enable the amplitude modify mode. The displayed amplitude is either the power-on value or the previous amplitude selected. When you change functions, the same amplitude is used if the present value is valid for the new function. 100.0 Enter Number 5 0 mVPP 2 Enter the magnitude of the desired amplitude. 1 Notice that the Num annunciator turns on and “ENTER NUM” flashes on the display, indicating that the number mode is enabled. 50 To cancel the number mode, press Shift Cancel . Shift ¿ 3 Set the units to the desired value. kHz m Vrms The units are selected using the arrow keys on the right side of the front panel. As soon as you select the units, the function generator outputs the waveform with the displayed amplitude. To turn off the flashing digit, move the cursor to the left of the di…
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