In this paper you will review Part 1 by applying your learning to a social issue of personal interest. Please make

sure to select a social issue (one involving groups of people/relating to society) and to address that same social

issue throughout the paper.

Please follow the paragraph structure outlined below, and please address every outlined question. Each paragraph

should reflect approximately one page of writing, with the entire paper constituting a streamlined narrative essay.

Paragraph 1: Sociological Thinking (see Writing Assignment #1, Questions 1-2)What does it mean to study a topic sociologically?

o What is the scientific approach to sociological study? What is the interpretive approach?If you were to study a social issue sociologically, what would you choose to study?

o Would you study that social issue from the perspective of a scientific or an interpretive

sociologist, and why?

Paragraph 2: Research Methods (see Writing Assignment #2, Questions 1-2)Why do sociologists collect data?

o What are the various methods that sociologists use to collect data?

o Which (and what) are qualitative methods? Which (and what) are quantitative methods?Which method is best suited for your study of the social issue identified in paragraph 1, and why?

o Is that method qualitative or quantitative?

o Is that method reflective of scientific or interpretive sociological concerns?

o What are the strengths and weaknesses of that method?

Paragraph 3: Sociological Theories and Paradigms (see Writing Assignment #3, Questions 1-2)What are the sociological paradigms and how do they relate to theory development?

o What are the foci/concerns of the functionalist paradigm?

o What are the foci/concerns of the conflict theory paradigm?

o What are the foci/concerns of the symbolic interactionist paradigm?What might a sociologist from each of the three paradigms find interesting about the social issue

identified in paragraph 1?From your perspective, which paradigm best suits the study of the social issue identified in paragraph 1,

and why?

Paragraph 4: Conclusion (see Writing Assignment #4, Questions 1-2)What is the sociological imagination?

o What is the difference between Mills’ concept of ‘personal trouble’ and his concept of ‘public

issue’?

o What is the difference between Mills’ concept of ‘history’ and his concept of ‘biography’?What makes the social issue identified in paragraph 1 a ‘public issue’?How does the social issue identified in paragraph 1 relate to ‘history,’ as Mills defines it?What do we stand to gain from applying the sociological imagination to the social issue identified in paragraph 1?2 attachmentsSlide 1 of 2

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writing assignment 1 1. Summarize the entirety of the module’s OER reading in 5-10 sentences. In this module’s OER’s reading; Chapter 1: Definition and History of Sociology, we’re able to see an in-depth assessment of the overall meaning behind sociology and what a sociologist does. It begins by going in-depth on the term sociology itself and describes how it is essentially the study of human social life. Sociologists as people study things from both a micro scale, meaning small groups or individuals, to a larger- macro scale; bigger groups and societies. We go on to learn that sociologists believe that the overall influence of a person’s society and culture can shape who they are through their attitude and behavior. There are of course exceptions to that, i.e., a person’s gender, race, religion, and so on, may affect them differently. As we continue through the chapter, we’re able to see how sociologists conduct their research using the scientific method, as well as others who may operate using an interpretive framework. Utilizing the scientific method for research would normally revolve around formulating a hypothesis, going on to collect data, before analyzing it and coming to a conclusion. Quantitative sociology is something that relies heavily on the scientific method, due to the fact that they utilize large groups of participants to oversee any patterns that may allow them to predict human behavior. On the other hand, the interpretive framework is done in a way to gather information from a single person’s point of view so that they’re able to gather more in-depth knowledge on the research at hand. Qualitative sociology most commonly has to deal with the interpretive framework due to the fact that it has to deal with seeking out human behavior on a more in-depth spectrum, while utilizing things such as focus groups, observational methods, and analyzing content sources such as journals or books. The chapter concludes with a brief description of a number of sociologists through history and their impacts and work in sociology. We’re also able to see how they were either working using the quantitative or qualitative methods. Separating his findings into two categories; Egoistic Suicide, which is described as something experienced by people who are not strongly supported in a social group. As well as, Anomic Suicide, which is described to be something that people experience when there is a shift in society that causes chaos, or some form of rapid change in their lives. While Durkheim took the scientific approach in his study on suicide, we learn of someone who studied the same case, instead utilizing the interpretive approach to sociology. Sociologist Jack D. Douglas believed that suicide wasn’t as simple as Durkheim made it out to be. He argued that instead of simply looking towards statistics and judging the merit or meaning of a suicide off of that; you instead needed to understand the person through first-hand accounts in order to understand the meaning behind suicide. Things like; families of victims or first responders..etc. People who experience it on a daily basis. He points out that suicide may not simply be a government statistic like Durkheim utilized, but instead something that could be an outcome of someone’s culture or the society around them. We’re able to notice the stark difference between the two in the lecture after the differences between the scientific approach and interpretive is showcased in the topic of suicide. 2. Summarize the entirety of the module’s lecture in 5-10 sentences. In this module’s lecture, we learn about the meaning behind sociology and its area of study. We are also familiarized with people who played a key role in shaping the two major ways sociologists collect and devise their research and data. To start, we learn of Emile Durkheim, who is someone that is widely considered to be the father of modern sociology. In a study surrounding the topic of suicide; Durkheim came to a conclusion after he observed different European countries and their societies, going as far as gathering information about suicides in all of the areas studied. He found that the rate at which suicides occurred in these areas, drastically increased following major social events such as wars, or famines. He used the findings he gathered to form a typology of suicide. writing assignment2 In the lecture and OER reading, a lengthy array of research methodologies has been discussed. The methodologies discussed in the reading are commonly used by researchers in the field for gathering empirical evidence. According to the reading, surveys, interviews, field work, ethnography, experiments, content analysis, secondary content analysis, and comparative historical-sociological methods are commonly used by researchers for the establishment of empirical evidence. Researchers use this acquired data to give support to their research arguments. In addition to this, the reading also discussed several ethical concerns regarding sociological research conduction. On the subject of this matter, the OER reading articulates that research subjects should be given utmost confidentiality and their identities should never be released to a pressurizing authority. This regulation has been enforced and implemented by the American Sociological Association (ASA). The ASA maintains a code of ethics and has articulated formal guidelines for conducting sociological research, consisting of principles and ethical standards to be used in the discipline (Traver, 2021). Further consolidating on the reading’s postulation, the module’s lecture highlighted the importance of reliability of empirical evidence in sociological research. According to the lecture, a sound set of empirical evidence is very crucial for the development of research paper credibility. This credibility can only be achieved if the researcher is formal and well-detailed in their observations and evidence articulation. The credibility of the research incorporated in a paper also builds upon the reputation of its author. Therefore, one should always use sound sociological research methodologies and should also align their articulation with ASA’s formal research guidelines. writing assignment3 Summarize OER Sociology involves the study of interactions within different cultures, societies, and groups, and sociologists explain that society’s expectations play a significant role in how we interact with one another while dictating our social patterns. Therefore, by conducting scientific or interpretive research, researchers can closely study human behavior through all its aspects, including history’s brief descriptions of sociologists who carried out extensive research on human social life. These sociologists include Max Weber, Auguste Comte, Harriet Martineau, Karl Max, Emile Durkheim, and W.E.B. Dubois, and they used various research methods, including surveys, ethnography, interviews, and experiments to collect empirical evidence and conduct their studies. However, some ethical concerns arise when these methods are used, and so, sociologists are mandated to abide by a strict set of rules governed by the American Sociological Association. The ethical considerations put in place by the ASA act as a guidance for sociologists when studying events and coming up with theories to help explain them, while these theories are based on social paradigms which sociologists such as Max Weber, Karl Marx, and Emile Durkheim use in sociological thinking; these include Durkheim’s functionalism, Marx’s conflict theory, and Weber’s symbolic interactionism. Over time, people interact and form a culture that guides beliefs and behaviors through both material and nonmaterial aspects of life, and this helps illuminate other factors people across cultures have in common. This aspect brings to light cultural universals, ethnocentrism, and cultural relativism; thus, culture can be categorized according to a shared system of symbols, technology, ideologies, beliefs, values, and social norms. Socialization is deemed as a lifelong process in which resocialization occurs once the individual feels the need to abandon old ways and embrace new ones. When it comes to social structure, both horizontal and vertical structures dictate the behaviors people form due to society’s organization and different interactions, and things like groups, social networks, organizations, roles, statuses, societies, and social institutions play an important role in shaping up components of social structures. Social stratification takes center stage here when looking at social structures through a vertical dimension as a society also organizes people into hierarchies, while class stratification is a result of the vertical dimension approach as people are classified according to the upper, middle, or lower classes, however, this kind of classification allows people to move freely between strata and this is what defines social mobility. Some racial and ethnic categories in the United States include Native Americans, African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans, and white ethnic Americans. Stratification by gender, sex, and sexuality is also a common feature of society today and has led to inequalities being experienced on these fronts with issues such as gender stereotyping, heterosexism, and homophobia arising from such inequalities being exploited. Agents of such social changes include the environment, social movements, population, technology, and social institutions. Summarize Lecture Sociological theory is an explanation for the relationship between two or more aspects of social life or data points. Sociological paradigms help us develop different ways of looking at the world around us and thus help us examine society from all sides. These paradigms include functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism. When working together, these Paradigms give us a holistic view of society and how it functions. Sociologists such as Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, and Max Weber have used these paradigms respectively to make sense of society from a wider view. Thus, functionalists, conflict theorists, and symbolic interactionists define the various phenomena in different ways to provide the best foundation for social theorizing. Important:writing assignment 4 I haven’t finished yet so pls read the textbook.(on page 32-36) City University of New York (CUNY) CUNY Academic Works Open Educational Resources Queensborough Community College 2021 Introduction to Sociology Textbook Amy Traver How does access to this work benefit you? Let us know! More information about this work at: https://academicworks.cuny.edu/qb_oers/172 Discover additional works at: https://academicworks.cuny.edu This work is made publicly available by the City University of New York (CUNY). Contact: AcademicWorks@cuny.edu Introduction to Sociology SOCY-101 Amy E. Traver, Ph.D. Queensborough Community College, CUNY This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 4.0 license. Table of Contents 1– Definition and History of Sociology………………………………………………………………………………………… 4 1.1 What Is Sociology? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4 1.2 Approaches to the Sociological Study of Society and Culture ……………………………………………….. 6 1.3 The History of Sociology…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7 Bibliography ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12 2 – Sociological Research Methods…………………………………………………………………………………………… 13 2.1 Introduction to Sociological Research Methods ………………………………………………………………… 13 2.2 Research Methods ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13 2.3 Ethical Concerns ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20 Bibliography ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 23 3 – Sociological Theories and Paradigms

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