Geology 1 laboratory Metamorphic Rocks Introduction Metamorphic rocks are, simply put, rocks that are “changed”. That is they started out as igneous, sedimentary or other metamorphic rocks and through one or more of the processes of burial, heating or pressurization they have been transformed into new types of rocks. Please use the supplied “Metamorphic Rocks Supplemental Information” sheet and webpage/videos linked below to answer the questions in this lab. Have fun!!! Informational/Lab Webpage: http://profharwood.x10host.com/GEOL101/Labs/Metamorf/index.htm Metamorphic Rock Identification Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HUydPhIaQQU Supplemental Information Sheet: Supplied on Canvas!! 1. Please define the following terms in your own words: a. Metamorphic Rock: ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ b. Foliated Metamorphic Rocks: ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ c. Non-foliated Metamorphic Rocks: ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ d. Regional Metamorphism: ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ e. Contact Metamorphism: ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ f. Metamorphic Grade: ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 2. Using the tables provided in the Supplemental Information Packet and the information provided in your textbook and the video linked above, complete the following table by using the provided descriptions to evaluate: 1) whether the rock is foliated or non-foliated, 2) parent rock name, and 3) metamorphic rock name. The first row is completed for you. Description Foliated Or Non-foliated Parent Rock Name Metamorphic Rock Name Fizzes in acid, brown color. Non- foliated Limestone Marble 1. 2. Dull luster, breaks into flat surfaces, fine-grained 3. Large crystals. Very shiny with slightly wavy surfaces. Garnet present 4. Lots of quartz, scratches glass. No fizz in acid. Looks like a solid mass of crystals 5. Dark silver, writes on paper 6. Looks like snakeskin, softer than glass. 7. Minerals separated into layers, rock looks striped 8. Fine-grained crystals, shiny luster 9. Dark, fine-grained rock produced by contact metamorphism. Scratches glass. Looks like basalt 10. Scratches glass. Abundant feldspar and amphibole 11. Low density, organic matter, black Picture 3. Please visit the interactive Lab Webpage linked here: http://profharwood.x10host.com/GEOL101/Labs/Metamorf/index.htm At the bottom of the page are 8 “Samples to Identify”. Please visit the pages for each of the 8 samples and supply your responses in the table below. Please copy and paste the rock pictures provided on the webpage for each sample in the final column of the table. Sample #1 is done for you: ***Note*** – To complete this exercise, you will need to select the proper texture, degree of foliation, approximate hardness (use the “hardness test” icons below the image, use n/a if the software tells you that the hardness cannot be determined for a specific sample(s)), identify whether the sample fizzes in acid (use the “Hydrochloric Acid Test” icon to see if the samples fizzes in acid), composition, parent rock, rock name, and a copy of the pictures provided for each sample. To see if you have the replies to these categories, click the “Grade Identification” button at the bottom of the page and feel free to modify your responses for each of these items until you get the right answers!! Provide those correct answers in the table below!! Texture (Foliated or NonFoliated) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Foliated Degree of Foliation Approximate Hardness Hydrochloric Acid Test Gneissic Banding n/a No Composition Feldspar, mica, quartz Parent Rock Rock Name Schist Gneiss Rock Picture Geology Laboratory, Metamorphic rock lab Metamorphic rocks are, simply put, rocks that are “changed”. That is they started out as igneous, sedimentary or other metamorphic rocks and through one or more of the processes of burial, heating or pressurization they have been transformed into new types of rocks. As this change progresses the mineral crystals become larger and better defined, and my eventually become segregated into bands. As the degree of metamorphic change continues we call it a change in metamorphic grade. Rocks that haven’t changed much are low-grade metamorphic rocks; those that have changed a great deal are high-grade. There are two principal modes of metamorphism, regional and contact. Regional metamorphism generally occurs due to larger scale tectonic forces such as mountain building events. These forces may cause metamorphism to occur over 1D’s to 1~O’s of kilometers. Contact metamorphism occurs when hotrock (magma) or fluids come in contact with cold rock and alters the minerals in the cooler rocks. Contact metamorphism usually takes place over small distances, typically 1m to 1 km. Both of these processes can produce similar results and often the only way to tell the difference between the two is to be in the field and observe the~ize of the area over which metamorphism has occurred. . Non-foliated Metamorphic Rocks: These rocks do not show any layering and typically are made of a single mineral. Often these are produced by contact metamorphism. Metamorphic Rock Quartzite Parent Rock Sandstone Description Made of silica (quartz). Can be any color, harder than glass, won’t fizz in acid, a solid mass of crystals. Marble Limestone Made of CaC03 , can be any color, softer than glass, fizzes in acid, made of interlocking crystals. Marble.may also be made of dolomite (Ca·Mg)C0 3 , which is usually brown to white, with a weak fizz or no fizz in acid unless the rock is ground to a powder. Serpentonite Amphibolite Basalt Granite or Diorite Green “snake skin” appearance, softer than glass, will not fizz in acid. Often looks like a plutonic igneous rock. Contains amphiboles and sometime feldspars. Will scratch glass. Hornfels Any rock A dark fine-grained rock produced by contact metamorphism. It often looks much like basalt. Will scratch glass. Graphite Usually Limestone or coal Bituminous coal Dark silver, soft, writes on paper. Anthracite coal all organic matter, black, low density, shiny. Foliated Metamorphic Rocks: These rocks show a layering of flattened minerals that is produced by directed stress. These rocks are listed in order of increasing metamorphic grade. Metamorphic Rock Slate Parent Rock Shale Description Fine grained, breaks into flat surfaces. Has a dull luster. Phyllite Slate Fine-grained crystals that are not quite large enough to see but give the rock a shiny luster. Schist Phyllite Crystals are large enough to see with the naked eye.’ These rocks are usually moderately to very shiny and may have flat or slightly wavy surfaces. Schist’s are named based on the mineral assemblages they contain, such as muscovite-garnet schist for example, or by their color, such as Greenschist, and Blueschist. Gneiss Schist or igneous rock such as Granite or Diorite Minerals in these rocks are found in separate layers or bands and the rock typically looks striped (but sometimes you have to squint a little to see this). Page 1 WTPW2015.v1.3
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