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UNFORMATTED ATTACHMENT PREVIEW

Week 4 – Assignment Due Monday by 11:59pm EASTERN STANDARD TIME Peer-Review: Final Paper Draft Email a complete draft of your final paper to your assigned partner by 11:59 PM in YOUR time zone on Day 3 of Week 4. Include the cover page, abstract, body of paper, and reference page. Provide in-text (within the paper) specific feedback to your partner about his or her final paper draft. You will be evaluated by your instructor on the volume and quality of feedback that you provide to the other student (5 points). Please comment primarily on content, but also feel free to provide comments about flow, mechanics, APA application, or any other details that are pertinent and helpful for the student to improve upon for the final paper submission in Week 6. Required Text Colby, I. C., Dulmus, C. N., & Sowers, K. M. (2013). Connecting social welfare policy to fields of practice. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons eText: ISBN-10 1118419286, ISBN-13 9781118419281; Print: ISBN10 1118177002, ISBN-13 9781118177006. Required References Jaramillo, S. G. (2014). Putting children and adolescents at the center of housing policy: A latin american perspective. Cityscape, 16(1), 197-201. Retrieved from UoR Library search 1 Modification to Medicare policies Anita Reeves Ramaiya HUM8105: Applied Human Services Policy (RBB137DS) Dr. Philip Atkins September 27, 2021 2 Modification to Medicare Policies Final Project Outline I. Introduction & Background A. Introduction • This section will introduce the topic and provide significant insights into the importance of the Medicare program. • Medicare is a federal health insurance plan in the U.S. responsible for paying for medical expenses for individuals ageing 65 years and above (Huffman, & Upchurch, 2018). • Explain other roles of the program, such as covering the medical bills for younger individuals with disabilities and patients suffering from End-Stage Renal Diseases. B. Background • Provide the history and overview of the program • Medicare health insurance program was developed in 1965under the Social Security Administration. • Provide a brief history and current management of the program—the Medicare program financed by the U.S. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. II. Medicare program policies A. Importance of the policies 3 • In general, policies provide consistent guidance, clarity and efficiency in an organization or a program. • Explain why policies in the healthcare matter B. Necessity for reforms and modification of the policies • Explain the importance of patient safety and access to quality healthcare as the fundamental objective of the Medicare program. • The key intention for modification of the Medicare program is to revolutionize the healthcare system by providing better quality care at affordable costs. • Mention the impacts of the Buy-In Medicare policies (Garrett, 2020) III. Satisfied roles of Medicare A. Fundamental roles of Medicare • Medicare program covers basic health needs. • The program ensures financial and health security to approximately 60 million seniors and young individuals with disabilities. • The program ensures sustainable healthcare services for elders lacking health insurance coverage (Hussey, Lui & White, 2017). • Explain Medicare’s guarantee to ensure access to safe, quality and affordable healthcare services. IV. Failures of the Medicare program 4 • This section will explain the need for modifications of the Medicare policies. In addition, the section will site some of the challenges experienced with Medicare resulting in patient’s dissatisfaction and thus the need for reform. • Mention the issue of accelerating cost of care for the Individual Medicare beneficiaries. • Explain the limiting age coverage provisions. The program only serves older adults and young individuals with disabilities. The program needs to ensure equality and accessibility to quality care. V. Recommendations • The section will involve providing the preferred solutions to the provided challenges experienced with Medicare, as mentioned above. • The Medicare program should offer the individual beneficiaries variety of choices to ensure they satisfy personal desires. • Evaluate the importance of modifying the Medicare physician payment policy (Manchikanti et al., 2018) • The program should also offer the beneficiaries grants to purchase more affordable and less expensive insurance alternatives from easily accessible locations. • The Medicare policy program should provide open treatment options to the patients to ensure prioritization of their needs. • Include that the program should provide health service coverage to all patients and not only to the older adults (Butler, 2020). 5 • Include the impacts of the already implemented reforms such as the Medicare Part D on income-related disparities (Carvalho et al., 2019). • Assess the regulatory changes to Medicare in response to the current global pandemic situation, COVID-19 (Podulka, & Blum, 2020) VI. Strategies to monitor change and impact of the policies • Address the importance of monitoring healthcare organizational change. • Provide effective approaches to monitoring the implementation and management of the suggested reforms on Medicare policies. Still, these strategies should help to assess the impacts of the policies. • Mention the patient satisfaction surveys as the most informative strategy to assess the impacts of the reformed policies and the change implemented with the application of the Medicare program. • Communicate with the care providers to assess the effectiveness of the Medicare program changes implemented. VII. Conclusion • Conclude by reviewing the impacts of the Affordable Care Act changes to the Medicare program in the enhancement of quality and safe diagnosis and care delivery (Lissenden & Yao, 2017) • Address the overall progress and achievements of the Medicare program in the health care system. 6 • Provide the conclusive reasons for reframing the Medicare policies. 7 References Butler, S. M. (2020, July). Medicare Advantage for all, perhaps? In JAMA Health Forum (Vol. 1, No. 7, pp. e200967-e200967). American Medical Association. Carvalho, N., Petrie, D., Chen, L., Salomon, J. A., & Clarke, P. (2019). The impact of Medicare part D on income-related inequality in pharmaceutical expenditure. International journal for equity in health, 18(1), 1-11. Garrett, B., Banthin, J., Gangopadhyaya, A., Buettgens, M., Shartzer, A., Holahan, J., & Arnos, D. (2020). The Effects of Medicare Buy-In Policies for Older Adults on Health Insurance Coverage and Health Care Spending. Huffman, K. F., & Upchurch, G. (2018). The health of older Americans: a primer on Medicare and a local perspective. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 66(1), 25-32. Hussey, P. S., Liu, J. L., & White, C. (2017). The Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act: effects on Medicare payment policy and spending. Health Affairs, 36(4), 697-705. Lissenden, B., & Yao, N. A. (2017). Affordable Care Act changes to Medicare led to increased diagnoses of early-stage colorectal cancer among seniors. Health Affairs, 36(1), 101-107. Manchikanti, L., Singh, V., Benyamin, R. M., Kaye, A. D., Pampati, V., & Hirsch, J. A. (2018). Reframing Medicare physician payment policy for 2019: a look at the proposed policy. Pain Physician, 21(5), 415-432. Podulka, J., & Blum, J. (2020). Regulatory Changes to Medicare in Response to COVID-19. Running Head: MODIFICATION TO MEDICARE POLICIES Annotated Bibliography- Modification to Medicare Policies HUM8105: Applied Human Services Policy (RBB137DS) September, 20, 2021 1 MODIFICATION TO MEDICARE POLICIES 2 Butler, S. M. (2020, July). Medicare Advantage for all, perhaps? In JAMA Health Forum (Vol. 1, No. 7, pp. e200967-e200967). American Medical Association. Butler (2020) notes that the COVID-19 pandemic has led to the questioning of the US health system. The has led to the suggestion that Medicare should become the chassis of the whole health care system. However, there have been concerns about Medicare for all. First is the increase in federal expenditure. Second is that even though the Medicare benefit package is comprehensive, traditional Medicare comprise of significant out of pocket-costs for all. There is also the concept of disruption, especially for the individuals with other health coverages since that means having multiple systems. This research is important in understanding modifications to Medicare. It is also relevant and up to date. Carvalho, N., Petrie, D., Chen, L., Salomon, J. A., & Clarke, P. (2019). The impact of Medicare part D on income-related inequality in pharmaceutical expenditure. International journal for equity in health, 18(1), 1-11. Carvalho et al. (2019) details the impact of Medicare Part D. The purpose of Medicare prescription drug benefit plan was to allow the beneficiaries have access to subsidized outpatient and subscription drug coverage which was offered through stand-alone prescription drug plans. The implementation of Medicare Part D was resulted in an increase in public drug expenditure, compared to the out-of-pocket and private spending. Public-drug expenditures only favoured the poor. Particularly, the comprehension of income-related inequality measures is crucial in describing how they are driving factors in the unequal distribution of health and health access. MODIFICATION TO MEDICARE POLICIES 3 Therefore, this research is important in understanding some of the introductions in Medicare program and how such modifications have had an effect on the overall US health system. Garrett, B., Banthin, J., Gangopadhyaya, A., Buettgens, M., Shartzer, A., Holahan, J., & Arnos, D. (2020). The Effects of Medicare Buy-In Policies for Older Adults on Health Insurance Coverage and Health Care Spending. According to Garret et al. (2020), the introduction of Medicare buy-in program allows qualifying people to purchase Medicare-like health insurance plan. The program required individuals aged 50 and 64 to enroll, which means that the only individuals above 50 would be beneficiaries. The research is important in understanding the effect of the buy-in program as well as the effect of modernizing the Medicare benefit. This research article is also up to date. Huffman, K. F., & Upchurch, G. (2018). The health of older Americans: a primer on Medicare and a local perspective. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 66(1), 25-32. Huffman and Upchurch (2018) detail the overview of Medicare and the insurance choices for Medicare beneficiaries. The authors also provide insights on the effect of Medicare on income and race. Thus, it is important to understand how Medicare works so as to be able to get the maximum benefits out of it. The research is important in the understanding of how Medicare has changed over the years. The research resource is also updated. Hussey, P. S., Liu, J. L., & White, C. (2017). The Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act: effects on Medicare payment policy and spending. Health Affairs, 36(4), 697-705. MODIFICATION TO MEDICARE POLICIES 4 Hussey et al. (2017) notes that the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization ACT, which was enacted in 2015, resulted in the repealing of the Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) formula. It also led to the expansion of the role of value-based payment in Medicare. Therefore, the modification to Medicare led to an increase in the utilization of payment models that were associated to health care quality. Health care providers were also awarded for decreasing spending growth. This research is important in understanding how MACRA impacts the overall health care system. Lissenden, B., & Yao, N. A. (2017). Affordable Care Act changes to Medicare led to increased diagnoses of early-stage colorectal cancer among seniors. Health Affairs, 36(1), 101-107. Lissenden and Yao (2017) note ACA changes to Medicare. ACA resulted in increasing the affordability as well as the accessibility of the preventive services in the US. ACA necessitated health insurers to increase the coverage of diseases such as breast cancer and colorectal cancer screening tests without any involvement in patient cost sharing. This, therefore, led to an increase in the early detection of the two types of cancers. This research is important in detailed how modifications to Medicare have had an impact in the coverage of health care in the US. Manchikanti, L., Singh, V., Benyamin, R. M., Kaye, A. D., Pampati, V., & Hirsch, J. A. (2018). Reframing Medicare physician payment policy for 2019: a look at proposed policy. Pain Physician, 21(5), 415-432. According to Manchikanti et al. (2018), CMS released a proposed change to Medicare. There was the introduction of two rules, first being Medicare physician fee schedule and another the quality payment program. CMS also provided codes for the increase in the reimbursement MODIFICATION TO MEDICARE POLICIES 5 services. This research is important in defining the different changes in the healthcare regulations such as the proposed fees schedule and the role in interventional pain management. Podulka, J., & Blum, J. (2020). Regulatory Changes to Medicare in Response to COVID19. The global COVID-19 pandemic has had devastating effects on the health care systems. Podulka and Blum (2020) note that the COVID-19 pandemic led to waiving of the existing Medicare regulations. The Congress provided unprecedented flexibility to aid the health care system to public health emergencies. The research is important in the analysis of the changes in COVID19-related regulations. Therefore, the research is important in understanding changes in Medicare, with response COVID-19 pandemic. 1 Substance Abuse Complications within the Child Welfare System Rough Draft Joshua Porter The University of Arizona Global Campus HUM 8105 Applied Human Services Policy Instructor: Dr. Philip Atkins 10/04/2021 2 Abstract The human services policy with numerous of issues and need some improvement within this field is children of color in Child Welfare System. Furthermore, the researchers are now discovering the evidence about some of the flaws in the practice and policy within the Child Welfare System dealing with parents struggling with substance abuse. In this research paper, revealing some of the issues and elaborating on the state of the child welfare system failing the children in community dealing with parents struggling with substance abuse. Foremost is the growing recognition of the complex nature of society and the child welfare system’s response to it (Williams, 2015). The Child Welfare System purpose was to provide temporary resource for distressed families, the child welfare system was never intended to provide the comprehensive range of social services that are demanded of it today. There has been an accumulative amount of children in the child welfare agencies have failed to meet the support of the United States population they are supposed to be serving. Furthermore, there is a growing recognition that the child welfare system alone cannot provide all of the services needed by the families and children who come into it Poverty and an array of social problems as well as difficulties inherent in public child welfare systems have made it difficult to provide services to an increasingly diverse and troubled population (Williams, 2015). There are many factors from both the internal and external within the human service career field have failed the population in almost every situation possible. In addition, demographic and structural funding plays an essential role in the crisis of a system with diminishing resources and increasing responsibilities with minimal of staffing. Human Services have realize some the indicators that is affecting the child involving substance abuse. 3 Introduction The child welfare system is a group of services designed to promote the well-being of children by ensuring safety, achieving permanency, and strengthening families to care for their children successfully (Colby & Dulmus, 2013).). The primary responsibility for child welfare services rests with the States, however, the United States Federal Government plays a vital role in supporting States in the delivery of services through funding of programs and legislative initiatives. In this paper, the concentration on the procedures to improve unification between the child and the parent(s) or guardian dealing with substance abuse. Substance abuse refers to people who misuse certain substances for the purpose of altering mood or psychological state (Burger, 2014). Also, elaborating on some programs implemented in different states that need to be nationally approve from the federal government to ensure the Child Welfare system is effective. Children who are experiencing abuse due to their parents drinking too much alcohol and/or other drugs have a higher risks for any array of physical, cognitive, psychological, and social harms (Freisthler & Maguire, 2021). It is imperative to protect the children from experiencing abuse due to parents struggling with substance abuse and stop the reoccurring issue after the child is reunited with their parent or guardian. History of the Child Welfare System In the 19th century, the United States started to develop industrialize and build urban centers. Around the 19th century, there was economic depression that made it challenging for families to support themselves to live in the United States. Child dependency prior to the 19th century was primarily the consequence of children becoming orphans. 

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