“There’s nothing new about anti-work philosophy. History is dotted with individuals and groups who decided that laziness was next to godliness and work was a waste of time.” — Tom Hodgkinson, “Idle Thoughts”.

Discuss the statement above with reference to a type of work that you consider to be significant. In your discussion, you should also make reference to two relevant theories (Aristotle, John Locke, or Émile Durkheim). 

In your single, 800-word essay (including in-text citations, but excluding references), you should:  

Identify a specific type of work and outline the nature of this work.

Describe the current social and economic context of the type of work you have chosen and show its impact of our society – whether socially, culturally, technologically or economically.

Explain how the statement above applies to this type of work. You must use two relevant theories from this course (i.e. Aristotle, John Locke, or Émile Durkheim) to help you discuss about the meaning and value of labour in this type of work.

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Course Development Team Head of Programme : Assoc Prof Jennifer Ang Mei Sze Course Developer(s) : Assoc Prof Jennifer Ang Mei Sze : Dr Janice Kam Technical Writer : Chloe Chong, ETP Video Production : Dr Janice Kam, CUC © 2021 Singapore University of Social Sciences. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced in any form or by any means without permission in writing from the Educational Technology & Production, Singapore University of Social Sciences. ISBN 978-981-48-4741-4 Educational Technology & Production Singapore University of Social Sciences 463 Clementi Road Singapore 599494 How to cite this Study Guide (APA): Ang, M. S. J., & Kam, J. (2021). Why work? Singapore: Singapore University of Social Sciences. Release V2.1 Build S1.0.5, T1.5.21 Table of Contents Table of Contents Course Guide 1. Welcome…………………………………………………………………………………………………… CG-2 2. Course Description and Aims…………………………………………………………………. CG-3 3. Learning Outcomes…………………………………………………………………………………. CG-5 4. Learning Material……………………………………………………………………………………. CG-6 5. Assessment Overview……………………………………………………………………………… CG-7 6. Course Schedule………………………………………………………………………………………. CG-8 7. Learning Mode………………………………………………………………………………………… CG-9 Study Unit 1: The Purpose of Labour Learning Outcomes……………………………………………………………………………………. SU1-2 Overview……………………………………………………………………………………………………. SU1-3 Chapter 1: Aristotle: Labour as a Means to Privileged Leisure…………………… SU1-4 Chapter 2: John Locke: The Labour Theory of Value………………………………… SU1-12 Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………….. SU1-18 Formative Assessment……………………………………………………………………………… SU1-19 References………………………………………………………………………………………………… SU1-27 Study Unit 2: Work, Labour And Automation Learning Outcomes……………………………………………………………………………………. SU2-2 Overview……………………………………………………………………………………………………. SU2-3 i Table of Contents Chapter 1: Karl Marx: The Alienation of Labour……………………………………….. SU2-4 Chapter 2: Machines and the Future of Work…………………………………………… SU2-12 Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………….. SU2-22 Formative Assessment……………………………………………………………………………… SU2-23 References………………………………………………………………………………………………… SU2-29 Study Unit 3: Forms of Work Learning Outcomes……………………………………………………………………………………. SU3-2 Overview……………………………………………………………………………………………………. SU3-3 Chapter 1: Defining Work…………………………………………………………………………… SU3-4 Chapter 2: Economic and Social Issues of Work……………………………………….. SU3-13 Chapter 3: Unpaid Work and Reflections on Work…………………………………… SU3-19 Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………….. SU3-23 Formative Assessment……………………………………………………………………………… SU3-24 References………………………………………………………………………………………………… SU3-30 ii List of Lesson Recordings List of Lesson Recordings Study Unit 1……………………………………………………………………………………………………. SU1-2 Study Unit 2……………………………………………………………………………………………………. SU2-2 Study Unit 3……………………………………………………………………………………………………. SU3-2 iii List of Lesson Recordings iv Course Guide Why Work? SCO113 Course Guide 1. Welcome Presenter: Dr Janice Kam This streaming video requires Internet connection. Access it via Wi-Fi to avoid incurring data charges on your personal mobile plan. Click here to watch the video. i Welcome to the course SCO113 Why Work?, a 2.5 credit unit (CU) course. This Study Guide will be your personal learning resource to take you through the course learning journey. The guide is divided into two main sections – the Course Guide and Study Units. The Course Guide describes the structure for the entire course and provides you with an overview of the Study Units. It serves as a roadmap of the different learning components within the course. This Course Guide contains important information regarding the course learning outcomes, learning materials and resources, assessment breakdown and additional course information. i https://d2jifwt31jjehd.cloudfront.net/SCO113/IntroVideo/SCO113_Intro_Video.mp4 CG-2 SCO113 Course Guide 2. Course Description and Aims The nature of work and our perceptions of work have changed considerably with globalisation and technological advancements. Not only have many traditional jobs been phased out or substituted by automation, but also jobs created in the new economy need to adapt to flexible work hours, multiple and borderless work locations, contingent employment (e.g. contract work and freelancing), and a consideration of the impact of work on the community and environment. This course brings students through the changing nature and design of work, and to a consideration of the future of work, and allows them to reflect on the significance of work and labour, with a focus on the context of Singapore and the ASEAN region. Course Structure This course is a 2.5-credit unit course presented over 3 weeks. There are three Study Units in this course. The following provides an overview of each Study Unit. Study Unit 1 – The Purpose of Labour This study unit introduces the purpose of labour. In each study unit, you will be introduced to a philosophical framework on labour – its meaning, its place and purpose for individual human being and human societies – and will be guided through its modernday relevance. You will learn to apply these theoretical ideas to modern-day case studies and real-world labour situations. Study Unit 2 – Work, Labour and Automation This study unit will focus on the topics of alienation, industrialization and the challenges of automation. You will consider the impact of capitalism and technology on the changing nature of work and workplace. CG-3 SCO113 Course Guide Study Unit 3 – Forms of Work In this study unit focuses sociological perspectives on work. We will look at sociological approaches to work at the macro and micro levels, definitions of work and leisure, the changing landscapes of work, unemployment and inequality, and unpaid work. CG-4 SCO113 Course Guide 3. Learning Outcomes Knowledge & Understanding (Theory Component) By the end of this course, you should be able to: 1. Outline the evolving nature and design of work and workplace 2. Show the differences between work and labour 3. State the impacts of technology and globalisation on the nature and design of work Key Skills (Practical Component) By the end of this course, you should be able to: 1. Explain the effects of work 2. Discuss the value of work 3. Describe the nature and perception of work in local contexts CG-5 SCO113 Course Guide 4. Learning Material The following is a list of the required learning materials to complete this course. Required Textbook(s) N.A. Other recommended study material (Optional) The following learning materials may be required to complete the learning activities: N.A. Website(s): N.A. CG-6 SCO113 Course Guide 5. Assessment Overview The overall assessment weighting for this course is as follows: Assessment Description Weight Allocation Assignment 1 Pre-course Quiz 10% Assignment 2 Discussion Board 40% Assignment 3 Tutor-Marked Assignment 50% TOTAL 100% The following section provides important information regarding Assessments. Continuous Assessment: There will be continuous assessments in the form of one Pre-course Quiz, one Discussion Board (DB), and one Tutor-Marked Assignment (TMA). All assignments are compulsory and are non-substitutable. There are no examinations. Passing Mark: To successfully pass the course, you must obtain a minimum overall passing mark of 40 in your continuous assessments. Non-graded Learning Activities: Activities for the purpose of self-

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