Anth 100 Sept 15 2010 Galileo • Telescope + objectification o Not just the vision to outer space, but you could also look back on us o Previous the only way to explain supernatural things was from the bible, when your trying to look at planets with an telescope you explain them as objects not as supernatural. o That being said the idea of looking back at the earth would be looking at everything as an object: thus objectifying everything o Saying there is universal laws that justify everything the entire social structure of god, pope, church would be changed, there was now more
Francis Bacon 1561 • Describes that everything is their own object and you can understand what they do • Idol Market place: are the misperceptions are the results of redirect and gossip • Idol of the theatre: are the mistaken belief systems, transmitted from one generation to the next through superstition ritual • Idol of the school: the notion that there is an abstract principle that perceives understanding of the world • “We need to observe things in there pure truth” • Knowledge system that is not attached to a belief a religion Idols of the Tribe are deceptive beliefs inherent in the mind of man, and therefore belonging to the whole of the human race. They are abstractions in error arising from common tendencies to exaggeration, distortion, and disproportion. Thus men gazing at the stars perceive the order of the world, but are not content merely to contemplate or record that which is seen. They extend their opinions, investing the starry heavens with innumerable imaginary qualities. In a short time these imaginings gain dignity and are mingled with the facts until the compounds become inseparable.
This may explain Bacon’s epitaph which is said to be a summary of his whole method. It reads, “Let all compounds be dissolved. ” • Idols of the Cave are those which arise within the mind of the individual. This mind is symbolically a cavern. The thoughts of the individual roam about in this dark cave and are variously modified by temperament, education, habit, environment, and accident. Thus an individual who dedicates his mind to some particular branch of learning becomes possessed by his own peculiar interest, and interprets all other learning according to the colors of his own devotion.
The chemist sees chemistry in all things, and the courtier ever present at the rituals of the court unduly emphasizes the significance of kings and princes. • Idols of the Marketplace are errors arising from the false significance bestowed upon words, and in this classification Bacon anticipated the modern science of semantics. According to him it is the popular belief that men form their thoughts into words in order to communicate their opinions to others, but often words arise as substitutes for thoughts and men think they have won an argument because they have out talked their opponents.
The constant impact of words variously used without attention to their true meaning only in turn condition the understanding and breed fallacies. Words often betray their own purpose, obscuring the very thoughts they are designed to express. • Idols of the Theater are those which are due to sophistry and false learning. These idols are built up in the field of theology, philosophy, and science, and because they are defended by learned groups are accepted without question by the masses.
When false philosophies have been cultivated and have attained a wide sphere of dominion in the world of the intellect they are no longer questioned. False superstructures are raised on false foundations, and in the end systems barren of merit parade their grandeur on the stage of the world. Enlightenment • The age of the metric system: abstract principle of a decimal system, anyone can use it • The English system is assigning things in thought of your church/religion • Lay these principles out in his book the Novum Orgaon • The Objective Method “You can use the natural world in antastic ways if you view the world from an objective measure” • Capitalize from the Objective Method Step 1) Start to catalogue everything • Diderot started the Encyclopedia o Start to put lots of different languages math’s and other intellectual things in order o Doing this is actually challenging the system of knowledge and order, at that time the monarchy • Linaeus: Book Systemae Naturae, categorize every single species on the planet o Kingdom o Phylum o Class o Order Genus o Species • Origin • Evolutionism o Starts to explain the orgin of everything, not just a instance aperience from god o Spencer introduces the notion of society as a social organism ? Also suggests that is have a cohesion to the whole of society ? Social organism evolves through time from less complex to more complex ? Man of science giving a scientific authority to social issues o Luis Henry Morgan ? Rail and mining industries, lawyer Monogenesis, that all people originates from a common ancestor, controversial, plantation owner doesn’t want to be from common origin from slave ? Book: Ancient Society explain differences among societies but at the same they share a common evolution in their society • Savagery (lowest)people directly dependent or fire bows spears and pottery • Barbarism Heard livestock and agriculture, beyond hunter gatherer • Civilization People who use alphabets, written language These stage is not qualitatively different they share the same ancestor: difference stages of a historical development • To get from stage to stage you must have technological development • Liberal view but gives the legitimacy that technology is the be all and we will force our technology and ideas on people
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