In the immediate aftermath, about one million people were left homeless. The societal effects have been long lasting and the nation still hasn’t fully recovered (as of 5/1/20). Part 1: Geology of the Haiti Earthquake You should have already downloaded Google Earth at http://earth.google.com or you could use it directly with the Chrome browser at https://www.google.com/earth/ 1) Go to the Discussion Files folder in Canvas and drag the kml file Haiti-Earthquake-nl.kml to your computer. Clicking on it should open it in Google Earth and the features of the file should show up in the Places panel in the left column. (NOTE: This file will have many more features than what we’ll be using for this exercise, but you are highly encouraged to open it and explore further.) Within the Layers panel, under “Borders”, check “Country Names” and check “Labels” so that “Populated Place,” “Islands,” “Geographic Features” and “Water Bodies” are active. Below, turn on “Roads” and “3D Buildings.” Check “Terrain” on the bottom as well. 2) Back up in the Places panel, leave all features under “Haiti Earthquake” unchecked, then double-click on “Haiti Earthquake” and you’ll be directed automatically to the island of Hispaniola where Haiti is located. Zoom out a bit to view its location in the Caribbean. Look at the bathymetric features on the seafloor around the island of Hispaniola and compare them to the tectonic maps on the first page of this exercise. The Caribbean plate is complex. What other Caribbean islands might be vulnerable to earthquakes related to transform plate boundaries? Place your answers on the Assignment5 Answer Sheet found in the Discussion folder. Find the north-south chain of islands just to the east. What do you think the tectonic setting of the volcanic island arc of the Lesser Antilles is? 3) Click the down arrow next to the heading “Haiti Earthquake,” then click the boxes to turn on “Imagery,” and “High-Res in Google basemap.” Be sure to leave everything else unchecked. Then check “Earthquake Data,” and click the down arrow. Under “Earthquake Locations” only turn on “Initial Quake MAG 7.0.” Leave the buttons for aftershock locations unopened. Below, turn on “Fault Trace.” (Be aware that this is only the portion of the fault that ruptured during the earthquake. The full length of the fault is much longer.) 4) In the menu bar at the top, under the heading “Google Earth Pro,” go to Preferences > 3D View > Units of Measurement and choose “Meters, Kilometers.” Click the blue “OK” button then close the window. 5) Now cut-and-paste the following coordinates: 18 34’48.68″N, 72 17’25.92″W into the Search box. Double-clicking Search will take you to the airport in Haiti. Zoom outward until you are at an eye altitude of 4.5 to 5.0 km. Take a picture of the airport from this eye altitude – go to Add in the menu bar at the top and then click Photo. At the top of the dialog box, label this new picture “Haiti Airport”. This will automatically save the picture under the Places panel – you’ll see it as a checked box. 6) Go back to Haiti and zoom out until both the airport and the epicenter of the initial quake are visible on your screen (eye altitude of about 35-40 km). You may need to move your screen. Using the ruler tool at the very top, what is the distance (in km) from the Haiti airport to the epicenter? To get an idea of how far this distance is, fly over to Davis by typing in “Davis, CA” in the Search box. Now zoom out to an eye altitude of about 35-40 km and locate Vacaville by moving your screen. Vacaville should appear southwest of Davis. Using the ruler tool measure the distance from Davis to Vacaville. This is the approximately the same distance from the Haiti airport to the epicenter. 7) Go back to Haiti by double-clicking “Haiti Earthquake” within the Places panel. Click the down arrow to expand the “Earthquake Locations” feature. Click on the square next to Earthquake Locations so that the initial shock turns off then click on it again so that the main shock and ALL the aftershocks that are greater or equal to 4.0 are showing on the map. Scroll through the Earthquake Locations aftershocks. What was the range of aftershock magnitudes above M4.0? Over how many days did these large aftershocks occur after the main quake on January 12, 2010? The earthquakes are arranged chronologically. (You can figure out the date and other important information about each aftershock by clicking on each aftershock individually under the folder Earthquake Locations.) 8) Now clear the map by going to Earthquake Data and clicking the box next to Earthquake Locations. This will remove all the aftershocks from the map. Right under Earthquake Locations, click the “Initial Quake” box so that only the main shock is displayed on the map. Minimize the Earthquake Locations folder (with the down arrow) and right under, turn on the entire “Shake Intensity” folder. Zoom to an eye altitude of ~100 km. Looking at the USGS Shake Intensity key in the top left, what is the most intense shaking called, in terms of Potential Shaking and Potential Damage? Port au Prince (the capital of Haiti) has a population density of 19,555 people per km2 and covers an area of about 36 km2. Do the arithmetic to estimate how many people in Port au Prince were affected by extreme shaking. Davis, CA covers a comparable area of about 35 km2 but only has a population density of about 2000 people per km2. To get a personal feel for what it must have felt like in Port au Prince, think about Davis with 10 times the population density experiencing ‘extreme’ eart
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