parcel of air is undersaturated, saturated, or supersaturated and be able to describe and explain how can we saturate air • Be able to explain why raindrops/ice crystals must grow bigger in order to fall and be able to describe and explain the processes by which droplets/ice crystals could grow • Be able to predict snowflake shape using the temperature and supersaturation of air • Be able to explain the conditions needed for snow to fall to the ground Review: The Hydrologic Cycle Review: Changes of State Molecules are held together by hydrogen bonds. As the molecules gain more energy these can be more easily broken apart and are overcome entirely as water evaporates to form a gas. Evaporation and Condensation Vapor pressure: Pressure of a gas above a liquid Saturation: amount of water in gaseous phase is maximized Saturation Vapor Pressure: Maximum vapor pressure at a given temp. Water vapor content What happens if temperature increases? = Undersaturated (more evaporation can take place if water is available) Supersaturated What happens if temperature decreases? = Supersaturated (condensation/deposition will take place) What happens if you add more water vapor? = Supersaturated (condensation/deposition will take place) Undersaturated Water vapor content 1. Vapor pressure At what temperature would the air become saturated? a) 5 oC b) 10 oC c) 20 oC d) 30 oC Cloud formation • Clouds form when air becomes saturated and water droplets or ice crystals form • To saturate air we can: – add water vapor (e.g. by more evaporation over lakes/ocean) Cloud formation • Clouds form when air becomes saturated and water droplets or ice crystals form • To saturate air we can: – add water vapor (e.g. by more evaporation over lakes/ocean) – cool down the air (e.g. by forcing the air to rise higher in the atmosphere) D Question 1 1 pts If air is saturated at roughly 25 oC, how much water vapor is in the air? 80 70 60 50 Saturation Vapor Pressure (mb) 40 30 20 10 0 -40 -20 0 20 40 Temperature (°C) 05 mb O 20 mb O 30 mb O 38 mb D Question 2 1 pts Use the diagram from Question 1 to help you answer this question. If air is at 10 oC, and has a vapor pressure of 5 mb, it would be: O undersaturated O saturated O supersaturated D Question 3 1 pts Will a large supercool water droplet have a slower or faster terminal velocity than a small supercool water droplet? slower because it has a greater surface area than the small droplet faster because the updrafts move more quickly O slower because the volume increases less than the surface area as radius increases O faster because the volume increases more than the surface area as radius increases U Question 4 1 pts The Bergeron process creates large ice crystals in a cloud because at the same concentration of water vapor: air is undersaturated above an ice crystal and saturated above a supercool droplet air is saturated above a supercool droplet and supersaturated above an ice crystal air is supersaturated above a supercool droplet and undersaturated above an ice crystal Question 5 1 pts What sort of snowflakes would form when the temperature was -5 °C and there was a supersaturation of 0.15 g/m?? Plates Columns Plates Columns and Plates 0.3- Needles Dendrites 0.2- Dendrites Sectored plates Water saturation Supersaturation (g/m?) Hollow columns Columns 0.1- Plates Thin plates Solid plates Plates Solid prisms Со 0 0 -10 -25 -10 -15 -20 10 0 Temperature -30 -20 -35 -30 & 요 32 20 O needles O solid prisms O sectored plates O dendrites D Question 6 1 pts How have animals adapted to the presence of ice and snow? O Many animals will migrate to avoid cold winters. They can change color between summer and winter so that they are camouflaged. Some animals will hibernate during winters when it is too cold and there is little available food. They have thicker fur or feathers to help keep them warm during the very cold winters. O All of the above Question 7 1 pts Which of the following conditions would create the lowest elevation snowlines in the Sierra Nevada mountains in California? O very warm summers and little winter snowfall O very warm summers and large amounts of winter snowfall O very cold summers and little winter snowfall O very cold summers and large amounts of winter snowfall U Question 8 1 pts A block of snow is 20 inches thick and has a snow water equivalent of 5 inches. What is the density of the snow relative to liquid water? O 10% 0 20% O 25% O 40% D Question 9 1 pts Which of the following statements about plant growth in the Arctic is TRUE? Plants will respond in a complex way to changes in seasonal snow due to longer growing seasons but also potentially increased damage from frosts and less water availability. Plant growth will definitely increase everywhere in the Arctic because there will be longer growing seasons if snow melts earlier in the spring. Plant growth will definitely decrease everywhere in the Arctic because plants will be more likely to be damaged when ground freezes if there is only a thin snowpack. D Question 10 1 pts Which of the following statements about the importance of snow to California is TRUE? Snowpack in California is predicted to increase in area and thickness over the next 100 years due to warmer temperatures and so increased water vapor in the atmosphere. Snowmelt contributes to California’s water supply in the spring and summer when more water is needed by urban areas and agriculture. The reduction of snow cover in California in the next few decades will have little effect on ecosystems in the mountain areas. Very little of our water supply in California comes from snowmelt so even large reductions in snow cover in the next 100 years will not have significant effects on our economy. Revolution Only very small influence on seasonal heating Why do we have seasons? Earth’s mechanics: b) Rotation Earth spins completely once per day (24 hours) around its axis – reason why we have day and night Why do we have seasons? Earth’s mechanics: c) Tilt (23.5o) Earth’s tilt is the main cause of the seasons The tilt affects the amount of solar energy reaching the top of Earth’s atmosphere through the year by influencing: i. Period of daylight ii. Beam spreading Why do we have seasons? Earth’s mechanics: c) Tilt (23.5o) i) Period of daylight Why do we have seasons? Earth’s mechanics: c) Tilt (23.5o) i) Period of daylight Quick Question: Which position would the Earth be when the North Pole experiences 24 hour days? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ndlQNicOeso Why do we have seasons? Earth’s mechanics: c) Tilt (23.5o) ii) Beam Spreading Which diagram correctly shows which way Earth is tilted? A B Why is it colder in highland areas? Because in the troposphere temperature decreases with altitude 1. Radiation from the sun travels through the atmosphere and heats the ground. 2. Ground surface then emits infrared radiation which is absorbed by gases just above the ground. 3. Further from Earth’s surface the fewer gas molecules there are and the colder it is. Lecture 2d – Applying these ideas to Earth’s past Learning Outcomes • Be able to use the Stefan-Boltzmann Law and Wien’s Law to explain how blackbody radiation changes with temperature • Be able to describe/explain/draw diagrams to represent the five factors that control Earth’s energy balance: – Sun’s luminosity – Distance from Sun – Earth’s atmosphere and albedo – Energy emitted from the Earth to balance incoming energy – Greenhouse Effect • Be able to think about how these factors change on different timescales on Earth and how we can apply the same ideas to different terrestrial planets e.g. Snowball Earth, Faint Young Sun Paradox, Venus Faint Young Sun Paradox • Over 4.5 billion years, the luminosity of the sun has gradually increased by 30% • But… there is evidence for liquid water on Earth for most of Earth’s history which has allowed life to exist Question: Given the factors that control Earth’s temperature, how have they combined to ensure that the surface temperature of Earth is just right for billions of years? Faint Young Sun Paradox • Over 4.5 billion years, the luminosity of the sun has gradually increased by 30% but….. there is evidence for liquid water on Earth for most of Earth’s history • Answer = long-term decrease in atmospheric CO2 Reminder: Snowball Earth Hypothesis • Growth of ice resulted in increased albedo and positive feedback, cooling the Earth • Buildup of carbon dioxide in atmosphere due to volcanic eruptions strengthened greenhouse effect and caused warming Image Credit: University of Bristol Lecture 2c – The greenhouse effect Learning Outcomes • Be able to use the Stefan-Boltzmann Law and Wien’s Law to explain how blackbody radiation changes with temperature • Be able to describe/explain/draw diagrams to represent the five factors that control Earth’s energy balance: – Sun’s luminosity – Distance from Sun – Earth’s atmosphere and albedo – Energy emitted from the Earth to balance incoming energy – Greenhouse Effect • Be able to think about how these factors change on different timescales on Earth and how we can apply the same ideas to different terrestrial planets e.g. Snowball Earth, Faint Young Sun Paradox, Venus What happens to solar radiation in the atmosphere? 70% of the solar energy is absorbed by the Earth. Why doesn’t the Earth keep getting hotter and hotter? Factors that control Earth’s temperature 1. Sun’s luminosity (power) 2. Distance from the Sun combine to create “Solar Constant” 3. The Atmosphere and albedo 4. Earth’s temperature (blackbody feedback) Earth’s Energy Balance Review: Black Body Radiation Wavelengths emitted by Sun and Earth 2. Wien’s Law λmax = 2898/T Sun’s λmax = 2898 / 6000K = 0.483 micrometers “shortwave” radiation Earth’s λmax = 2898 / 300 K = 9.66 micrometers “longwave” radiation Factors that control Earth’s temperature 1. Sun’s luminosity (power) 2. Distance from the Sun combine to create “Solar Constant” 3. The Atmosphere and albedo 4. Earth’s temperature (blackbody and feedback) 5. Greenhouse effect The Greenhouse Effect 1. Sun’s peak output is visible (shortwave) light. 2. Earth’s atmosphere transmits visible light. The light that reaches Earth’s surface is absorbed and warms the surface. 3. Earth’s surface is much colder than the sun so Earth emits radiation with a longer wavelength – infrared radiation. 4. Greenhouse gases in atmosphere absorb infrared radiation which warms the atmosphere. 5. Atmosphere therefore also emits infrared radiation – some goes out to space but some is emitted towards Earth again. Summary I strongly encourage you to attend discussion in Week 2 to walk through these ideas again and practice using the blackbody equations. A calculator will help. Is the greenhouse effect a bad thing? a)Yes b)No Is the greenhouse effect a bad thing? Earth’s average temperature without greenhouse effect Earth’s average temperature with greenhouse effect -18 oC ( 0 F) +15 oC ( 60 F) • The greenhouse effect is vital to keep Earth habitable! • But… we are adding more greenhouse gases to the atmosphere which strengthens the greenhouse effect • Additional greenhouse effect due to humans = anthropogenic climate change Lecture 2c – The greenhouse effect Learning Outcomes • Be able to use the Stefan-Boltzmann Law and Wien’s Law to explain how blackbody radiation changes with temperature • Be able to describe/explain/draw diagrams to represent the five factors that control Earth’s energy balance: – Sun’s luminosity – Distance from Sun – Earth’s atmosphere and albedo – Energy emitted from the Earth to balance incoming energy – Greenhouse Effect • Be able to think about how these factors change on different timescales on Earth and how we can apply the same ideas to different terrestrial planets e.g. Snowball Earth, Faint Young Sun Paradox, Venus What happens to solar radiation in the atmosphere? 70% of the solar energy is absorbed by the Earth. Why doesn’t the Earth keep getting hotter and hotter? Factors that control Earth’s temperature 1. Sun’s luminosity (power) 2. Distance from the Sun combine to create “Solar Constant” 3. The Atmosphere and albedo 4. Earth’s temperature (blackbody feedback) Earth’s Energy Balance Review: Black Body Radiation Wavelengths emitted by Sun and Earth 2. Wien’s Law λmax = 2898/T Sun’s λmax = 2898 / 6000K = 0.483 micrometers “shortwave” radiation Earth’s λmax = 2898 / 300 K = 9.66 micrometers “longwave” radiation Factors that control Earth’s temperature 1. Sun’s luminosity (power) 2. Distance from the Sun combine to create “Solar Constant” 3. The Atmosphere and albedo 4. Earth’s temperature (blackbody and feedback) 5. Greenhouse effect The Greenhouse Effect 1. Sun’s peak output is visible (shortwave) light. 2. Earth’s atmosphere transmits visible light. The light that reaches Earth’s surface is absorbed and warms the surface. 3. Earth’s surface is much colder than the sun so Earth emits radiation with a longer wavelength – infrared radiation. 4. Greenhouse gases in atmosphere absorb infrared radiation which warms the atmosphere. 5. Atmosphere therefore also emits infrared radiation – some goes out to space but some is emitted towards Earth again. Summary I strongly encourage you to attend discussion in Week 2 to walk through these ideas again and practice using the blackbody equations. A calculator will help. Is the greenhouse effect a bad thing? a)Yes b)No Is the greenhouse effect a bad thing? Earth’s average temperature without greenhouse effect Earth’s average temperature with greenhouse effect -18 oC ( 0 F) +15 oC ( 60 F) • The greenhouse effect is vital to keep Earth habitable! • But… we are adding more greenhouse gases to the atmosphere which strengthens the greenhouse effect • Additional greenhouse effect due to humans = anthropogenic climate change Lecture 2d – Applying these ideas to Earth’s past Learning Outcomes • Be able to use the Stefan-Boltzmann Law and Wien’s Law to explain how blackbody radiation changes with temperature • Be able to describe/explain/draw diagrams to represent the five factors that control Earth’s energy balance: – Sun’s luminosity – Distance from Sun – Earth’s atmosphere and albedo – Energy emitted from the Earth to balance incoming energy – Greenhouse Effect • Be able to think about how these factors change on different timescales on Earth and how we can apply the same ideas to different terrestrial planets e.g. Snowball Earth, Faint Young Sun Paradox, Venus Faint Young Sun Paradox • Over 4.5 billion years, the luminosity of the sun has gradually increased by 30% • But… there is evidence for liquid water on Earth for most of Earth’s history which has allowed life to exist Question: Given the factors that control Earth’s temperature, how have they combined to ensure that the surface temperature of Earth is just right for billions of years? Faint Young Sun Paradox • Over 4.5 billion years, the luminosity of the sun has gradually increased by 30% but….. there is evidence for liquid water on Earth for most of Earth’s history • Answer = long-term decrease in atmospheric CO2 Reminder: Snowball Earth Hypothesis • Growth of ice resulted in increased albedo and positive feedback, cooling the Earth • Buildup of carbon dioxide in atmosphere due to volcanic eruptions strengthened greenhouse effect and caused warming Image Credit: University of Bristol Lecture 2b – Incoming energy and albedo Learning Outcomes • Be able to use the Stefan-Boltzmann Law and Wien’s Law to explain how blackbody radiation changes with temperature • Be able to describe/explain/draw diagrams to represent the five factors that control Earth’s energy balance: – Sun’s luminosity – Distance from Sun – Earth’s atmosphere and albedo – Energy emitted from the Earth to balance incoming energy – Greenhouse Effect • Be able to think about how these factors change on different timescales on Earth and how we can apply the same ideas to different terrestrial planets e.g. Snowball Earth, Faint Young Sun Paradox, Venus Factors that control Earth’s temperature 1. Sun’s luminosity (power) Factors that control Earth’s temperature 1. Sun’s luminosity (power) 2. Distance from the Sun combine to create solar constant (or solar flux density) Solar flux density: amount of solar power per unit area on the surface of a sphere centered at the sun Luminosity of sun = 3.865 x 1026 Watts Area of a sphere around Sun = 4 π r2 So…. Solar flux density = Luminosity Area of sphere = 3.865 x 1026 Watts/ 4 x π x (1.5 x 1011 m)2 = 1367 W/m2 = “solar constant” Solar flux density: amount of solar power per unit area on the surface of a sphere centered at the sun Luminosity of sun = 3.865 x 1026 Watts Area of a sphere = 4 π r2 So…. Solar flux density = Luminosity Area of sphere The solar 26 constant of Mars is: 11 m)2 =a)3.9 x 10 Watts/ 4 x π x (1.5 x 10 Greater than the Earth’s b) Less than the Earth’s 2 =Earth’s c) SameW/m as the = 1367 “solar constant” Factors that control Earth’s temperature 1. Sun’s luminosity (power) 2. Distance from the Sun combine to create “Solar Constant” 3. The Atmosphere and albedo Solar Energy: Above and below the atmosphere What happens to incoming solar radiation? How much energy is reflected or scattered? Albedo: percentage of solar energy reflected away Planetary albedo = 30 % (or 0.30) Albedo: fraction of solar energy reflected away Can you think of ways in which the Earth’s albedo might change on short and long timescales? Planetary albedo = 30 % Quick question Which of the below changes would decrease Earth’s albedo? a) Increase snow cover b) Increase sea level c) Increase cloud cover d) Replace forest with desert Lecture 2a – Electromagnetic energy and blackbody laws Learning Outcomes • Be able to use the Stefan-Boltzmann Law and Wien’s Law to explain how blackbody radiation changes with temperature • Be able to describe/explain/draw diagrams to represent the five factors that control Earth’s energy balance: – Sun’s luminosity – Distance from Sun – Earth’s atmosphere and albedo – Energy emitted from the Earth to balance incoming energy – Greenhouse Effect • Be able to think about how these factors change on different timescales on Earth and how we can apply the same ideas to different terrestrial planets e.g. Snowball Earth, Faint Young Sun Paradox, Venus Sun as source of Earth’s energy Sun’s luminosity (power output) = 3.865 x 1026 Watts = 386,500,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 Watts Electromagnetic Energy Electromagnetic waves move together at the speed of light, no matter what the amplitude or wavelength Electromagnetic Energy Wavelength = “distance between crests” Higher energy waves have shorter wavelengths Lower energy Higher energy Long wavelength Short wavelength Electromagnetic radiation can have any wavelength but we have created certain categories of radiation based on wavelength e.g. visible light, x-rays, gamma-rays, radio waves Electromagnetic Energy Wavelength (micrometers) Energy Electromagnetic Energy What emits radiation (electromagnetic energy)? EVERYTHING Temperature > 0 Kelvin The Solar Spectrum flux photo source: NASA Wavelength (m) The sun emits a range of wavelengths – called a spectrum Blackbody Radiation The sun’s spectrum is very similar to a blackbody What is a “blackbody”? Anything that 1. Absorbs all light shined upon it 2. Emits a spectrum of light that depends upon its temperature Blackbody Radiation 1. Stefan-Boltzmann Law I = σ T4 where I = radiation in Watts/m2 σ = Stefan-Boltzmann constant = 5.67 x 10-8 Wm-2K-4 T = temperature (Kelvin) 2. Wien’s Law λmax = 2898/T where λmax = wavelength of maximum emissions (micrometers) T = temperature (Kelvin) Blackbody Radiation A • Stefan-Boltzmann Law: Total energy = constant x T4 (area under curve) • Wien’s Law: Wavelength of maximum emission = constant/ T B C D E Quick question: Which curve is emitted by the second hottest body? Blackbody Radiation Hotter black bodies 1. peak at lower wavelength 2. emit more energy Blackbody Radiation Hotter black bodies 1. peak at lower wavelength 2. emit more energy Lecture 1a – Science and misinformation Learning Outcomes • Be able to identify characteristics of science denial, including identifying cherry-picking and what logical fallacy is being used in a statement/argument • Be able to identify and explain the characteristics of open and closed systems • Be able to identify reservoirs, sources and sinks of a system, and make residence time calculations • Be able to construct and interpret positive and negative feedback loops The Scientific Method 1. 2. 3. Recognizing an unsolved question or problem Formulating a hypothesis – a tentative (or untested) explanation Testing the hypothesis by making observations (collecting data) • A theory is a scientific idea that has passed numerous tests and failed none. • A law or principle – theory has been decisively demonstrated. No exceptions observed. Misinformation and science denial • 5 characteristics of science denial: – Fake experts – people who appear qualified but don’t have the relevant expertise are used to pretend debate is ongoing – Cherry-picking – excludes data that conflicts with the desired conclusion – Impossible expectations – demands unrealistic standards of proof before acting – Logical fallacies – logically false arguments leading to invalid conclusions – Conspiracy theories – are inevitable when someone disagrees with an overwhelming scientific consensus. Only explanation is that all the experts must be conspiring to falsify or exaggerate the science. Discussion 1: Logical fallacies Logical fallacies – logically false arguments leading to invalid conclusions. Fallacy Example Appeal to fear If you don’t floss your teeth every day all your teeth will fall out! Personal attack (also Sally said that the speed limit on Campus Drive is 40mph. She got an F in her english class known as “ad hominem”) and has horrible taste in music so how does she know what the speed limit is? False dilemma You can either spend the rest of your life working and never have time for friends, or you can go out and party every night and never amount to anything. Slippery slope If you skip doing the quiz this week, you will never pass the class, so you will never graduate from college, and you will never get a job. Argument from authority You should believe everything I say because I am a professor. Straw man Senator Smith says that the nation should not add to the defense budget. Senator Jones says that he cannot believe that Senator Smith wants to leave the nation defenseless. Paralysis analysis I don’t have all the books ever written about Shakespeare so I cannot write this essay about him. False analogy I do not need to study for my math exam because I am doing really well in my psychology class. Non sequitur People died of cancer before cigarettes were invented so smoking doesn’t cause cancer. Logical fallacies What logical fallacy does the following statement commit? “We can either maintain our economy, or we can prevent climate change.” a) b) c) d) Appeal to fear Personal attack (ad hominem) Paralysis analysis False dilemma Question 1 2 pts Being able to identify logical fallacies is helpful in identifying weak arguments about a range of topics. What logical fallacy does each statement below commit? (2 points) (Tip – there is one example of each fallacy.) Choose Plants use carbon dioxide for photosynthesis so carbon dioxide cannot be considered a pollutant. ( Choose You cannot believe what activist Greta Thunberg says about climate change because she is too emotional. You can either create a planet that your children can live in, or you can drive a car. Choose) Choose Senator X says that we must propose policies to cut our carbon emissions. Senator Y says that they are shocked that Senator X is willing to sacrifice the US economy and workers just to save a few polar bears. Question 2 1 pts Panel A of the image below shows a real headline and graph of temperature anomaly data from a news article in the Financial Post in 2017. Panel B of the image below shows a graph of the temperature anomaly data (difference in temp compared to the average from 1901-2000) produced by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (part of the US government). Explain why the graph in Panel A is an example of cherry-picking and therefore misleading. (Quick note – “hiatus” means “pause”.) те FINANCIAL POST GLOBAL TEMPERATURE PAUSE Junk Science Week: The ‘hiatus’ The World’s surface temperature since 1997 according to the UK Met Office’s HadCRUTA database in global warming is the hottest 120 topic in climate science right now, whether alarmists like it or not The global warming hiatus is the most talked about and esearched topic in climate science pecial to handle 22, 2017.12.2017 3 minute. Join the conversation DGC When you want 04C 02°C В 1900 1910 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Question 3 1 pts Earth is a mostly closed system. Explain ONE implication that this has for the future of human society. Edit View Insert Format Tools Table 12pt Paragraph Β Ι Ο Av T2 : р O words D Question 4 1 pts The major reservoir on Earth that contains the cryosphere is the: O atmosphere O geosphere biosphere hydrosphere D Question 5 1 pts The diagram below shows a simplified version of the carbon cycle. What is the residence time of a carbon atom in soil in years? Residence time = amount in reservoir / total sources OR sinks Atmosphere 800 Gtons Photosynthesis Plant respiration 40 Gtons/yr 20 Gtons/yr Soil respiration 18 Gtons/yr Dissolution 38 Gtons/yr Gas release 40 Gtons/yr Land plants 800 Gtons Oceans 40,000 Gtons Leaf-fall 20 Gtons/yr Soil 2000 Gtons Soil runoff 2 Gtons/yr D Question 6 1 pts As global temperatures rise, there are more extreme weather events which causes more damage to our economy. Because of this damage our carbon emissions drop and therefore this would help reduce global temperature. Which of the diagrams below accurately represents this feedback loop? Global temperature Global temperature Human carbon emissions due to economic activity A Number and intensity of extreme weather events Human carbon emissions due to economic activity B Number and intensity of extreme weather events Damage to economy Damage to economy Global temperature Global temperature Human carbon emissions due to economic activity с Number and intensity of extreme weather events Human carbon emissions due to economic activity D Number and intensity of extreme weather events Damage to economy Damage to economy ОА OB OC OD D Question 7 1 pts The feedback described in the question above is a: O positive feedback loop O negative feedback loop D Question 8 1 pts Which blackbody law is responsible for the Earth being in planetary energy balance? O Stefan-Boltzmann Law O Wien’s Law Law of gravitation D Question 9 1 pts Solar constant – solar luminosity / 4 nr2 wherer-distance of planet from Sun The closer a planet is to the Sun: O the higher the solar constant o the lower the solar constant o o distance from the Sun has no effect on the solar constant Question 9 1 pts Solar constant = solar luminosity / 412 where r = distance of planet from Sun The closer a planet is to the Sun: O the higher the solar constant O the lower the solar constant O distance from the Sun has no effect on the solar constant А B Atmosphere DA Earth Use this diagram to answer the following 2 questions. Question 10 1 pts On the diagram above: arrow Select represents the albedo arrow Select represents the additional energy flux due to the greenhouse effect that keeps Earth’s surface warmer than it otherwise would be. Question 11 1 pts Remember that we are in planetary energy balance. Using the diagram above, what would be equal to? O A+E O B+E O CUF O B+F O A+F Question 12 2 pts All of the changes below are occurring due to climate change or other human activities. Select ALL of them that are causing albedo to INCREASE (and so helping slow warming). (NOTE – correct answers will earn points but incorrect answers will cause you to lose points so be careful!) TABLE 2-1 Average Albedo Range of Earth’s Surfaces Surface Albedo range (percent) Fresh snow or ice 60-90% Old, melting snow 40-70 Clouds 40 90 Desert sand 30-50 Soil 5-30 Tundra 15-35 Grasslands 18-25 Forest 5-20 Water 5-10 Adapted from W. D. Sellers, Physical Climatology (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965), and from R. G. Barry and R. J. Chorley, Atmosphere, Weather, and Climate, 4th ed. (New York: Metbwew, 1982). O melting of snow and sea ice revealing land or ocean underneath overgrazing is removing vegetation and expanding areas of desert increasing cloud cover increasing sea level flooding areas of land deforestation is removing forest and replacing it with grassland for raising cows D Question 13 1 pts Use the graph below to work out which of the gases would be a “greenhouse gas”? 100% Gas A 0% 100% Gas B Energy absorbed by gas 0% 100% Gas C M 0% ultraviolet visible infrared Increasing wavelength O Gas A O Gas B O Gasc All of the gases Question 14 1 pts Is the news story below related to weather or climate? Japan’s cherry blossom ‘earliest peak since 812’ Change BEHROZ MEHR O weather O climate Question 15 1 pts Which position on the diagram below would be northern hemisphere summer? B A с OA OB OC OD D Question 16 1 pts Which of the following is NOT a reason that the poles are colder than the Equator? O greater reflection at higher latitudes due to the angle of incoming energy O shorter days for part of the year O variations in the strength of the greenhouse effect close to the Poles O beam spreading due to curvature of the Earth D Question 17 1 pts Match the diagram to the correct Milankovitch cycle. А Northern Hemisphere tilted away from the sun at aphelion Northem hemisphere tilted toward the sun at aphelion B precession Choose1 eccentricity Choose 1 obliquity [Choose1 Question 18 1 pts From the diagram below, which hemisphere would be experiencing more extreme seasons? O Northern hemisphere O Southern hemisphere Both hemispheres would have extreme seasons D Question 19 1 pts An example of a geologic record of past climate indicating wetter conditions in the past is: the satellite record of rainfall over the last 30 years o the presence of dry lakes in the deserts of Southern California O wider tree rings from trees grown in California 1000 years ago D Question 20 1 pts Which of the following statements about climate change is TRUE? Earth’s climate is projected to change faster over the next 100 years than at any other time in the last 65 million years. There has always been ice on Earth. O Global temperatures are now the highest they’ve ever been over Earth’s history. Human civilization has experienced several rapid and dramatic changes in climate before over the last 10.000 years, Question 21 1 pts Apart from causing warming, increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere affects the ocean by causing: Edit View Insert Format Tools Table 12pt Paragraph | BI VA £ Tv р O words 1 Global Climate Drivers Heat-trapping Emissions (Greenhouse Gases) 3 Forcing (watts per sq. meter) Warming WNLO-NWAU Cooling Sun’s Energy Output 1 Ho Land Use – Changes Aerosols from Aerosols from Volcanic Venting Urban Pollution 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 1880 1900 Use the graph above to answer the following 2 questions. D Question 22 1 pts Approximately how much warming was caused by greenhouse gases in the year 2000 in W/m?? D Question 23 1 pts If we manage to reduce aerosol pollution in urban areas by creating stricter laws, what would that do to global temperatures based on the graph above? there would be no change O we would see global cooling O we would experience extra warming Question 24 1 pts What causes the LARGEST uncertainty in our estimates of future climate changes by 2100? O how ice sheets will respond to rising temperature o the response of clouds and precipitation O sudden shifts such as the melting of sea ice or burning of rainforest O how much greenhouse gas humans emit over the next decades Question 25 2 pts Briefly explain TWO reasons that human society in the RCP8.5 scenario emits more greenhouse gas emissions than in the RCP2.6 scenario. Edit View Insert Format Tools Table 12pt Paragraph B T U A 2 Ty : p O words Question 26 1 pts Explain ONE way that changes to the cryosphere are going to specifically impact people in the southwest US as our climate changes. Edit View Insert Format Tools Table 12pt Paragraph B 1 U AV Tv p O words Question 27 1 pts The diagrams below show projected changes in precipitation by 2100 with best or worse case scenarios. Which of the statements below is TRUE? RCP2.6 RCP8.5 Change in average precipitation (1986-2005 to 2081-2100) (b) (%) -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 O All locations on Earth get wetter in the future due to climate change. . There are more dramatic changes in precipitation in the RCP8.5 scenario than the RCP2.6 scenario. O Dry places get much drier in the future but wet places get similar amounts of rain. The Arctic gets drier in both scenarios by 2100. D Question 28 2 pts Match the solutions below with the category of climate change solution they belong to. (2 points) installing insulation in your home to make it easier to heat during winter [ Choose planting a large number of trees around the world to take up carbon dioxide [Choose1 eating less meat [Choose building wind turbines to generate electricity Choose Question 29 1 pts One potential geoengineering solution to climate change is adding fertilizer to the oceans which causes more algae to grow and carry out photosynthesis, taking in CO2. How would this cool climate? O By reducing the solar luminosity By increasing the amount of incoming energy reflected O By decreasing the amount of outgoing energy absorbed O By causing internal feedback loops D Question 30 1 pts Our worst-case scenario predicts that carbon emissions could grow to 16 Gtons/year by 2050. If we manage to stabilize our carbon emissions at today’s levels of around 8 Gtons/year what will happen to the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere? O decrease O remain the same O Increase D Question 31 1 pts Name ONE way carbon-free method of generating electricity and explain a potential challenge in using this method to supply us with energy. Edit View Insert Format Tools Table 12pt Paragraph v | BI VA I VA 2 Tv : p O words Question 32 1 pts What do we mean when we say that much of our daily water use is “hidden”? Edit View Insert Format Tools Table 12pt Paragraph | BIVAL T²u р O words Question 33 1 pts How are hydrogen bonds different from covalent bonds? O Hydrogen bonds form between molecules rather than between atoms O Both hydrogen and covalent bonds form due to the sharing of electrons Hydrogen bonds are much stronger (so more difficult to break) than covalent bonds D Question 34 2 pts Match the unusual property of water chemistry with their real world implication. Is the reason that ocean temperatures are not warming as fast as atmospheric temperatures due to climate change [Choose1 Choose ] high latent heat of vaporization hexagonal, open structure as a solid high specific heat Allows the transport of energy from the Equator to the Poles which keeps them warmer than they would otherwise be Means that ice floats rather than sinks Choose1 D Question 33 1 pts How are hydrogen bonds different from covalent bonds? Hydrogen bonds form between molecules rather than between atoms Both hydrogen and covalent bonds form due to the sharing of electrons Hydrogen bonds are much stronger (so more difficult to break) than covalent bonds Question 34 2 pts Match the unusual property of water chemistry with their real world implication. Choose Is the reason that ocean temperatures are not warming as fast as atmospheric temperatures due to climate change [Choose] < Allows the transport of energy from the Equator to the Poles which keeps them warmer than they would otherwise be Means that ice floats rather than sinks [Choose > D Question 35 1 pts I add 24,000 Joules of energy to 3kg of water. If the specific heat of water is 4000 Joules/kg°C, how much warmer would the water get in oC? Question 1 2 pts Being able to identify logical fallacies is helpful in identifying weak arguments about a range of topics. What logical fallacy does each statement below commit? (2 points) (Tip – there is one example of each fallacy.) Plants use carbon dioxide for photosynthesis [Choose) so carbon dioxide cannot be considered a pollutant. [Choose] False dilemma Non sequitur You cannot believe what activist Greta Straw man Thunberg says about climate change because Ad hominem she is too emotional. You can either create a planet that your children can live in, or you can drive a car. [ Choose [Choose Senator X says that we must propose policies to cut our carbon emissions. Senator Y says that they are shocked that Senator X is willing to sacrifice the US economy and workers just to save a few polar bears. Question 28 2 pts Match the solutions below with the category of climate change solution they belong to. (2 points) installing insulation in your home to make it easier to heat during winter planting a large number of trees around the world to take up carbon dioxide [Choose] [Choose] conservation efficiency geoengineering carbon-free energy [Choose] eating less meat building wind turbines to generate electricity [ Choose Question 34 2 pts Match the unusual property of water chemistry with their real world implication. Is the reason that ocean temperatures are not warming as fast as atmospheric temperatures due to climate change [Choose] [Choose] high latent heat of vaporization hexagonal, open structure as a solid high specific heat Allows the transport of energy from the Equator to the Poles which keeps them warmer than they would otherwi

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