Physical Geography An Introduction to GIS Technology Name __________________________________ Water World – 15 pts. Q1: Do you think this map gives you a realistic representation of Antarctica? Explain. Which type of map projection do you think this is? [Recall that substantial distortion occurs when using certain map projections.] (1 pt.) Q2: Do any of these projections work well for viewing Antarctica? Explain. (1 pt.) Q3: How does this projection compare to those you saw in Step 7 above? (1 pt.) Q4: Use Google to determine which location below is closest in size to the Larsen Ice Shelf. (1 pt.) A. Cook county B. Illinois C. Des Plaines D. Palatine E. Lake county Q5: Choose 2 coastal locations and one inland location and describe the differences you see between the current landmass outlines and those of 20,000 years ago. (1.5) Q6: For each continent, observe and summarize the eventual changes as sea levels rise from those of today to total thaw. (no need to write more than the space provided!) (3.5 pts.) Continent North America South America Europe Asia Observations Australia Africa Antarctica Q7: Are there any major consequences for those of us living in the Great Lakes region? Explain. (1 pt.) Q8: Are there any major consequences for those people living in the Hudson Bay region? Explain. (1 pt.) Q9: Finally, Are there any major consequences for those people living in California and the entire west coast of N. America? [Hint: think about the difference between a steep coastline and a gentle coastline. (1 pt.) Q10: Predict possible consequences of the 50-meter rise in sea level to the populations living in Southwest Asia. (1 pt.) Q11: What country did you choose? Predict possible consequences of the 50-meter rise in sea level to the populations living in the region you have chosen. (1 pt.) Q12: List other possible layers of data you could analyze to study the impact of rising sea levels. In other words, data other than population. (1 pt.) Physical Geography EAS 121, GEG 111 An introduction to GIS technology Name _________________________________ Water world – 15 pts. Imagine that the year is 2100. Scientists have determined that Earth’s rapidly warming climate will cause the ice sheets of Antarctica to break apart and melt at a much faster rate than was predicted a hundred years earlier. You and your GIS investigation team are presented with the challenge of studying the impact this change will have on the planet. You will explore and compare different maps of Antarctica and investigate specific Antarctic sites to learn more about the continent. You will also use world maps to investigate changes in ocean levels associated with the melting of the Antarctic ice sheets. Answers to all questions will be written in pencil on the answer sheet or typed directly in. There are a total of 12 questions. 1: Open the map 1. Launch an internet browser. In our D2L/Blackboard class site, click on the link located under the course materials/class activities tab for this activity. It is also typed below. http://www.arcgis.com/home/webmap/viewer.html?webmap=d8cd8dd72caf42d999fc164defafd861 When the map document opens, you see a map with two layers Latitude & Longitude and Topographic basemap displayed on the map. Confirm the basemap selection by clicking on the basemap button near the top left of the screen. Your view should look like this. Mapping Our World with ArcGIS Online © Esri, 2002-2017; CC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license http://esri.com/geoinquiries Module 7: Lesson 1– Student Directions 1 2. Click on the Modify Map button on the top right corner above your map. The button will now say “New Map”. 3. Click on the button “Show Contents of Map” just above the word Legend on the left side of the map. OR You are now able to see all the map layers available to view. Notice the check mark next to the layer name Latitude & Longitude. That tells you the layer is turned on and visible in the map. The layer that is turned on is on top of the Topographic basemap layer that displays the oceans. 2: Look at Antarctica 4. Click the check box in front of the Continents Layer to turn it on. (It may take a few seconds for the layer to draw on your map. 5. Click on the Continents Layer name in the Contents and click on the Show Legend icon to expand its legend. This may happen automatically. Now let’s look at Antarctica to see where the melted water will come from. (You may need to zoom out and pan the map to see Antarctica.) Scientists think that the first area to melt will be the Western Ice Shelf of Antarctica. The western part of Antarctica is on the left side of the map. It is considerably smaller than the eastern portion. It lies the west of the Transantarctic Mountain Range and basically covers all of the land west of the prime meridian. The prime meridian is the line that runs north south on the map. Q1: Do you think this map gives you a realistic representation of Antarctica? Explain. Which type of map projection do you think this is? [Recall that substantial distortion occurs when using certain map projections.] Mapping Our World with ArcGIS Online © Esri, 2002-2017; CC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license http://esri.com/geoinquiries Module 7: Lesson 1– Student Directions 2 6. Click the check box in front of the Projections button on the left side of the screen, just above the Latitude & Longitude button. Eight pushpins will appear on the map. 7. Click each of the pushpins to see Earth in different projections. Q2: Do any of these projections work well for viewing Antarctica? Explain. 3: View the South Pole As you reviewed the various projections, you may have thought that none of them would give you a good perspective of the South Pole, or you may have wanted to flip the map upside down or change its center. The recommended projection is the polar orthographic projection, which centers the map on the South Pole. 8. Pan the map up. Click the circle popup positioned over Antarctica. If you do not see the circle, pan down until you see the circle. 9. Click on the polar image of Antarctica that you see in the popup. Big difference, right? A new map window opens up with a map project entitled Module7 Lesson 1 B. 10. Close the first map project entitled Module 7 Lesson1 A by clicking the X on the first tab. Q3: How does this projection compare to those you saw in Step 7 above? 4: Picture Antarctica 11. Click the Content button. The legend on the left will change and will list Antarctic Sites, World Imagery and Antarctica. 12. Zoom in one more level to see Antarctica up close. Mapping Our World with ArcGIS Online © Esri, 2002-2017; CC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license http://esri.com/geoinquiries Module 7: Lesson 1– Student Directions 3 Each of the five sites marked on the map are linked to an image. When you click the image on each popup (indicated with a flag or circle), you will zoom into a larger image via your web browser. 13. Click on the yellow flag that represents the Larsen Ice Shelf. A popup window will appear. 14. Click on the small image of the Larsen Ice Shelf in the popup to view a larger image and read the caption at the bottom of the photograph. To give you an idea of the size of this ice shelf, the caption tells you that the last phases of the retreat totaled more than 2600 square km. Q4: Use Google to determine which location below is closest in size to the amount of retreat of the Larsen Ice Shelf. A. Cook county B. Illinois C. Des Plaines D. Palatine E. Lake county 15. Find out more about what Antarctica looks like by clicking on the other points on the map with the mouse cursor. Read the caption at the bottom of each image. Remember to click on each image in the popup to see the images and captions at a larger size. When you have looked at all the images, close the popup and any tabs that have opened with the larger images. 5: Explore Water World Antarctica has two major ice sheets: the western and the eastern. The western sheet is smaller than the eastern and covers Antarctica from the Transantarctic Mountains westward. The eastern sheet is on the opposite side of the mountain range and includes the majority of the continent. Both of these enormous sheets of ice are moving from the continental center toward the ocean. For example, as the western ice sheet moves into the ocean, it forms the Ross and Ronne ice shelves, which float on top of the ocean. It is here that the ice begins to break apart and melt. You will now examine what might happen to the water levels of the oceans if parts of these ice sheets were to melt. 16. Pan your map to the east (to the right) and click on the checkered flag on the west side of the Antarctica map. 17. Click on the image of the entire world in the popup. A new map window opens up with a map project entitled Module7 Lesson 1 C. 18. Close the prior map project entitled Module7 Lesson1 B. 19. Click the Show Contents of Map button to display the legend of the map. OR Mapping Our World with ArcGIS Online © Esri, 2002-2017; CC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license http://esri.com/geoinquiries Module 7: Lesson 1– Student Directions 4 20. Click the box next to the Country Outlines layer to turn it on. (You may have to wait a few seconds for the country outlines to appear.) You see country outlines from 2007. You also see a layer named “Antarctica 20K Years.” This layer shows an elevation map of Earth as scientists think it looked 20,000 years ago. At that time, sea level was 400 feet lower than it is today. By the way, this is a Robinson map projection now commonly used for world maps. Take a moment to notice the changes in shape and size of Greenland, Antarctica and Alaska. 21. Zoom and pan the map as needed to answer the following question. Q5: What significant differences do you see between specific current landmass outlines and those of 20,000 years ago? List at least three. 6: Analyze global sea levels that would result if Antarctic ice sheets melted If the western ice sheet melted, scientists predict that the oceans would rise about 5 meters. If the eastern ice sheet melted, predictions indicate that sea level would rise about 50 meters. If all the ice at the South Pole melted, including all the ice shelves and glaciers, sea level would increase by about 73 meters. One by one, turn on the layers: Today, Plus 5 Meters, Plus 50 Meters, and Antarctic Total Thaw. Simultaneously answer question 6 below. Be sure to indicate which layer your observations correspond to. Note: ArcGIS Online Map Viewer draws the layers starting with the bottom of the Table of Contents and moves upward. Therefore, a layer that’s turned on at the top of the Table of Contents will “draw over” a layer below it. Q6: For each continent, observe and summarize the eventual changes as sea levels rise from those of today to total thaw. 7: View changes in water levels 22. Zoom out to see the entire world. Turn off all layers except Antarctica Plus 50. 23. Turn on Rivers and Lakes. 24. Center your map view on North America and zoom in as close as you can to answer the following questions. (You may toggle back and forth between sea level today and plus 50 to Mapping Our World with ArcGIS Online © Esri, 2002-2017; CC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license http://esri.com/geoinquiries Module 7: Lesson 1– Student Directions 5 help answer the questions below. Q7: What major consequences, if any, do you see for those of us living in the Great Lakes region? Q8: What major consequences, if any, do you see for those people living in the Hudson Bay region? Q9: Finally, what major consequences, if any, do you see for those people living in California and the entire west coast of N. America? 8: And now for a bit of Cultural Geography: View changes in political boundaries The oceans of the world form the coastlines of many nations. You will now focus on coastal boundaries and how the 50-meter rise would affect political boundaries. 25. Pan and zoom the map to Southwest Asia. 26. Turn on the Major Cities data layer. The dark blue dots represent cities. Note how some of them are now in the water or on water’s edge. 27. Turn on Country Outlines so you can view current country boundaries. Take note of significant changes in the amounts of land remaining in different countries. Q10: Predict possible consequences of the 50-meter rise in sea level to the populations living in Southwest Asia. (Note: simply stating that they need to move is not enough of an answer) 28. Click the Full Extent button (house button) to show the entire world. Choose another country of the world (other than North America and those you identified in question 6) and repeat the process of zooming and identifying potential consequences of the rising sea level for your chosen country. (use the Zoom, Pan, and Identify tools as needed). Q11: What country did you choose? Predict possible consequences to the populations of the 50meter rise in sea level to the populations living in the region you have chosen. (Note: simply stating that they need to move is not enough of an answer) Q12: List other possible layers of data you could analyze to study the impact of rising sea levels. In this activity, you used ArcGIS Online to investigate the continent of Antarctica. You also explored the potential effect that the thawing of the Antarctic ice sheets would have on the global environment. You also noticed that as serious as this can get, North America will not be as severely affected as many other parts of the world. It makes me, Dr. Wulff, wonder how much the people of the U.S. will get involved to help the rest of the world. What do you think? Well done everyone! Mapping Our World with ArcGIS Online © Esri, 2002-2017; CC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license http://esri.com/geoinquiries Module 7: Lesson 1– Student Directions 6

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