1. What does Tim Wise argue is white privilege? What are at least two examples he uses to support this claim?
2. Then, reflect on your life experiences and think of a time where race became relevant or you became aware of your racial background. If you can’t think of an instance, speculate why race has not been prominent in your life.
Explanation & Answer length: 2 ParagraphsTheorist Biography & Annotated Bibliography Assignment Instructions Sheet (Theorist Biography 5 @ 5pts ea. – Theorist/Annotated Bibliography 5 @ 5 pts. ea.) This is a two-part assignment, both parts of these assigned writing assignments are to be completed. Below are the requirements/instructions for both Part I and Part II Part I – students are to read the biography of the assigned theorist (see schedule at the bottom of page two below). After reading the biography in a minimum of a 1/2-page single spaced writeup students are to discuss what they found interesting about the theorist; I do not want a summary of the autobiography. Part II – of the assignment requires going online and searching the CSUDH library electronic data base for three (3) academic research articles related to the theorist, ✓ including studies using the theory, ✓ studies discussing the details of the theory, ✓ other theories developed from the theory or that expand the theory discussed in Part One. ✓ Students may research any aspect of the theorist or their theory. Once the academic research articles have been selected, all three (3) articles are to be cited in ASA (American Sociological Association) format. Next students are to summarize three (3) of the three (3) articles selected. These summaries should also be singled spaced with a minimum of half (1/2) a page to three quarters (3/4) of a page in length (see page two for required information to be included in your journal summary). For the ASA formatting instruction, I will post the Purdue Owl link in Blackboard under the Content link and included the link with these directions for your convenience. All summaries are due on Friday by 11:59 p.m. in Blackboard using the Assignments Link (see due dates in the table below). Please edit and proof this assignment prior to submitting the work; this is an upper division undergraduate course; your work should reflect this status. • NOTE: This assignment is to be completed using Microsoft office word software, no Google Doc. or any other software will be accepted. DO NOT submit the assignment as an attachment that must be downloaded; these will not be opened or downloaded due to the risk of a virus. Assignments received in any other format or as an attachment will receive a grade of zero (0) points. Students having problems submitting the assignment please feel free to contact me for help. Below is the link for the Purdue Owl website with the ASA citation manual included. https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/asa_style/references_page_formatting.html Keywords: name of theorist i.e., Karl Marx, George Simmel, and others; sociological theories, Conflict Theory, Structural Functionalism, Symbolic Interactionism, Feminist Theory, AGIL imperative, dialectical philosophy The following information must be included in your summaries of each source: 1) The author(s) research question or the purpose of the study; be brief no more than a few sentences. 2) The research methodology used, was it quantitative or qualitative, and the specific method e.g., focus groups, interviews, questionnaires, meta-analysis, survey, mixed, etc.) also should be brief no more than a few sentences. 3) The sample size (number of participants) and the demographics (age, gender, race, offenses, etc.); this should be brief usually no more than a few sentences. 4) The findings in the article(s). This is where most of your summary should be focused. The overwhelming majority of your sentences should be devoted to the findings on the research presented in the article(s), spelled out explicitly. ANNOTATED BIOGRAPHY (25 points) – WRITING SUMMARIES – (25 points) This is a combination writing summary and annotated bibliography assignment; the easiest money you’ll ever make (Shaft the movie; 2000). You will be assigned five (5) writing assignments from the text. This assignment not only will require going on the CSUDH library database and searching for three (3) academic articles related to the assigned writing. The assignment will also require students to discuss interesting points found in the reading in a halfpage write-up. Additional instructions will be provided for the assignment under the link for the lab. Please use the following databases: SocioINDEX, Social Sciences Full Text (Wilson), PsyInfo, Psychology Databases, PsycARTICLES, ProQuest, Criminal Justice Abstracts, Toro Online Catalog of Books, as well as other databases provided by the university through the library to locate sources of interest. These articles are to be cited in the American Sociological Associations (ASA) format which can be found on the Purdue Owl website. Instructions on how to access both of these sites (Purdue Owl and CSUDH library) will be provided during the semester, as well as additional details for this assignment. These assignments will be due on Friday’s by 11:59 p.m.; due date can be found on the list of writing assignments posted in Blackboard under the content link. • This assignment is two assignments in one: a writing assignment and a library research assignment. Meaning, for each assigned writing summary you must go to the library and search the data base for three (3) academic articles that are related to the assigned writing summary. Sociological Theory Tenth Edition 2 To David, with love —GR For Mom and Dad, with love —JS 3 Sara Miller McCune founded SAGE Publishing in 1965 to support the dissemination of usable knowledge and educate a global community. SAGE publishes more than 1000 journals and over 800 new books each year, spanning a wide range of subject areas. Our growing selection of library products includes archives, data, case studies and video. SAGE remains majority owned by our founder and after her lifetime will become owned by a charitable trust that secures the company’s continued independence. Los Angeles | London | New Delhi | Singapore | Washington DC | Melbourne 4 Sociological Theory Tenth Edition GEORGE RITZER University of Maryland JEFFREY STEPNISKY MacEwan University Los Angeles London New Delhi Singapore Washington DC Melbourne 5 Copyright © 2018 by SAGE Publications, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. FOR INFORMATION: SAGE Publications, Inc. 2455 Teller Road Thousand Oaks, California 91320 E-mail: email@example.com SAGE Publications Ltd. 1 Oliver’s Yard 55 City Road London, EC1Y 1SP United Kingdom SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd. B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044 India SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte. Ltd. 3 Church Street #10–04 Samsung Hub Singapore 049483 Acquisitions Editor: Jeff Lasser Editorial Assistant: Adeline Wilson Production Editor: Andrew Olson Copy Editor: Tammy Giesmann Typesetter: Hurix Systems Pvt. Ltd. Proofreader: Barbara Coster Indexer: Amy Murphy Cover Designer: Janet Kiesel Marketing Manager: Kara Kindstrom Printed in the United States of America. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Ritzer, George, author. | Stepnisky, Jeffrey, author. Title: Sociological theory / George Ritzer, University of Maryland, Jeff Stepnisky, MacEwan University. Description: Los Angeles : SAGE, 2018. | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2016037995 | ISBN 9781506337715 (hardcover : alk. paper) 6 Subjects: LCSH: Sociology. | Sociologists–Biography. Classification: LCC HM585 .R57 2018 | DDC 301–dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016037995 This book is printed on acid-free paper. 17 18 19 20 21 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 Brief Contents 1. Biographical and Autobiographical Sketches 2. Preface 3. Acknowledgments 4. About the Authors 5. PART I • Classical Sociological Theory 1. Chapter 1 • A Historical Sketch of Sociological Theory: The Early Years 2. Chapter 2 • Karl Marx 3. Chapter 3 • Emile Durkheim 4. Chapter 4 • Max Weber 5. Chapter 5 • Georg Simmel 6. PART II • Modern Sociological Theory: The Major Schools 1. Chapter 6 • A Historical Sketch of Sociological Theory: The Later Years 2. Chapter 7 • Structural Functionalism, Systems Theory, and Conflict Theory 3. Chapter 8 • Varieties of Neo-Marxian Theory 4. Chapter 9 • Symbolic Interactionism 5. Chapter 10 • Ethnomethodology 6. Chapter 11 • Exchange, Network, and Rational Choice Theories 7. Chapter 12 • Contemporary Feminist Theory 8. Chapter 13 • Micro-Macro and Agency-Structure Integration 7. PART III • From Modern to Postmodern Social Theory (and Beyond) 1. Chapter 14 • Contemporary Theories of Modernity 2. Chapter 15 • Theories of Race and Colonialism 3. Chapter 16 • Globalization Theory 4. Chapter 17 • Structuralism, Poststructuralism, and Postmodern Social Theory 5. Chapter 18 • Social Theory in the 21st Century 8. References 9. Name Index 10. Subject Index 8 Detailed Contents Biographical and Autobiographical Sketches Preface Acknowledgments About the Authors PART I • Classical Sociological Theory 1. A Historical Sketch of Sociological Theory: The Early Years Introduction Social Forces in the Development of Sociological Theory Political Revolutions The Industrial Revolution and the Rise of Capitalism Colonialism The Rise of Socialism Feminism Urbanization Religious Change The Growth of Science Intellectual Forces and the Rise of Sociological Theory The Enlightenment The Conservative Reaction to the Enlightenment The Development of French Sociology Alexis de Tocqueville (1805–1859) Claude Henri Saint-Simon (1760–1825) Auguste Comte (1798–1857) Emile Durkheim (1858–1917) Social Facts Religion The Development of German Sociology The Roots and Nature of the Theories of Karl Marx (1818–1883) Hegel Feuerbach Marx, Hegel, and Feuerbach Political Economy Marx and Sociology Marx’s Theory The Roots and Nature of the Theories of Max Weber (1864–1920) and Georg Simmel (1858–1918) Weber and Marx 9 Other Influences on Weber Weber’s Theory The Acceptance of Weber’s Theory Simmel’s Theory The Origins of British Sociology Political Economy, Ameliorism, and Social Evolution Political Economy Ameliorism Social Evolution Herbert Spencer (1820–1903) Spencer and Comte Evolutionary Theory The Reaction Against Spencer in Britain The Key Figure in Early Italian Sociology Turn-of-the-Century Developments in European Marxism 2. Karl Marx Introduction The Dialectic Dialectical Method Fact and Value Reciprocal Relations Past, Present, Future No Inevitabilities Actors and Structures Human Potential Labor Alienation The Structures of Capitalist Society Commodities Fetishism of Commodities Capital, Capitalists, and the Proletariat Exploitation Class Conflict Capitalism as a Good Thing Materialist Conception of History Cultural Aspects of Capitalist Society Ideology Freedom, Equality, and Ideology Religion Marx’s Economics: A Case Study 10 Communism Criticisms Contemporary Applications 3. Emile Durkheim Introduction Social Facts Material and Nonmaterial Social Facts Types of Nonmaterial Social Facts Morality Collective Conscience Collective Representations Social Currents The Division of Labor in Society Mechanical and Organic Solidarity Dynamic Density Repressive and Restitutive Law Normal and Pathological Justice Suicide The Four Types of Suicide Egoistic Suicide Altruistic Suicide Anomic Suicide Fatalistic Suicide Suicide Rates and Social Reform The Elementary Forms of Religious Life Early and Late Durkheimian Theory Theory of Religion—The Sacred and the Profane Beliefs, Rituals, and Church Why Primitive? Collective Effervescence Totemism Sociology of Knowledge Categories of Understanding Moral Education and Social Reform Morality Moral Education Occupational Associations Criticisms Contemporary Applications 11 4. Max Weber Methodology History and Sociology Verstehen Causality Ideal Types Values Values and Teaching Values and Research Substantive Sociology What Is Sociology? Social Action Class, Status, and Party Structures of Authority Rational-Legal Authority Traditional Authority Charismatic Authority Types of Authority and the “Real World” Rationalization Types of Rationality An Overarching Theory? Formal and Substantive Rationality Rationalization in Various Social Settings Religion and the Rise of Capitalism Paths to Salvation Religion and Capitalism in China Religion and Capitalism in India Criticisms Contemporary Applications 5. Georg Simmel Primary Concerns Levels and Areas of Concern Dialectical Thinking Fashion Life More-Life and More-Than-Life Individual Consciousness and Individuality Social Interaction (“Association”) Interaction: Forms and Types Social Geometry 12 Social Types Social Forms Social Structures and Worlds Objective Culture The Philosophy of Money Money and Value Money, Reification, and Rationalization Negative Effects The Tragedy of Culture Secrecy: A Case Study in Simmel’s Sociology Secrecy and Social Relationships Other Thoughts on Secrecy Criticisms Contemporary Applications PART II • Modern Sociological Theory: The Major Schools 6. A Historical Sketch of Sociological Theory: The Later Years Early American Sociological Theory Politics Social Change and Intellectual Currents Herbert Spencer’s Influence on Sociology Thorstein Veblen (1857–1929) Joseph Schumpeter (1883–1950) The Chicago School Early Chicago Sociology The Waning of Chicago Sociology Women in Early American Sociology The Du Bois–Atlanta School Sociological Theory to Midcentury The Rise of Harvard, the Ivy League, and Structural Functionalism Talcott Parsons (1902–1979) George Homans (1910–1989) Developments in Marxian Theory Karl Mannheim and the Sociology of Knowledge Sociological Theory From Midcentury Structural Functionalism: Peak and Decline Radical Sociology in America: C. Wright Mills The Development of Conflict Theory The Birth of Exchange Theory Dramaturgical Analysis: The Work of Erving Goffman The Development of Sociologies of Everyday Life 13 Phenomenological Sociology and the Work of Alfred Schutz (1899–1959) Ethnomethodology The Rise and Fall (?) of Marxian Sociology The Challenge of Feminist Theory Theories of Race and Colonialism Structuralism and Poststructuralism Late-20th-Century Developments in Sociological Theory Micro-Macro Integration Agency-Structure Integration Theoretical Syntheses Theories of Modernity and Postmodernity The Defenders of Modernity The Proponents of Postmodernity Social Theory in the 21st Century Theories of Consumption Theories of Globalization Theories of Science, Technology, and Society 7. Structural Functionalism, Systems Theory, and Conflict Theory Structural Functionalism The Functional Theory of Stratification and Its Critics Talcott Parsons’s Structural Functionalism AGIL The Action System Change and Dynamism in Parsonsian Theory Robert Merton’s Structural Functionalism A Structural-Functional Model Social Structure and Anomie The Major Criticisms Substantive Criticisms Methodological and Logical Criticisms Systems Theory System and Environment Autopoiesis Differentiation Segmentary Differentiation Stratificatory Differentiation Center-Periphery Differentiation Differentiations of Functional Systems Conflict Theory The Work of Ralf Dahrendorf 14 Authority Groups, Conflict, and Change The Major Criticisms and Efforts to Deal With Them A More Integrative Conflict Theory Social Stratification Other Social Domains 8. Varieties of Neo-Marxian Theory Economic Determinism Hegelian Marxism Georg Lukács Reification Class and False Consciousness Antonio Gramsci Critical Theory The Major Critiques of Social and Intellectual Life Criticisms of Marxian Theory Criticisms of Positivism Criticisms of Sociology Critique of Modern Society Critique of Culture The Major Contributions Subjectivity Dialectics Criticisms of Critical Theory The Ideas of Jurgen Habermas Differences With Marx Rationalization Communication Critical Theory Today: The Work of Axel Honneth The Ideas of Axel Honneth Later Developments in Cultural Critique Neo-Marxian Economic Sociology Capital and Labor Monopoly Capital Labor and Monopoly Capital Other Work on Labor and Capital Fordism and Post-Fordism Historically Oriented Marxism The Modern World-System Geographical Expansion 15 Worldwide Division of Labor Development of Core States Later Developments World-System Theory Today Neo-Marxian Spatial Analysis The Production of Space Trialectics Spaces of Hope Post-Marxist Theory Analytical Marxism Postmodern Marxian Theory Hegemony and Radical Democracy Continuities and Time-Space Compression After Marxism Criticisms of Post-Marxism 9. Symbolic Interactionism The Major Historical Roots Pragmatism Behaviorism Between Reductionism and Sociologism The Ideas of George Herbert Mead The Priority of the Social The Act Gestures Significant Symbols Mind Self Child Development Generalized Other “I” and “Me” Society Symbolic Interactionism: The Basic Principles Capacity for Thought Thinking and Interaction Learning Meanings and Symbols Action and Interaction Making Choices Groups and Societies The Self and the Work of Erving Goffman The Self 16 The Sociology of Emotions What Is Emotion? Shame: The Social Emotion The Invisibility of Shame Emotion Management and Emotion Work Feeling Rules Commercialization of Feeling Criticisms The Future of Symbolic Interactionism 10. Ethnomethodology Defining Ethnomethodology The Diversification of Ethnomethodology Studies of Institutional Settings Conversation Analysis Some Early Examples Breaching Experiments Accomplishing Gender Conversation Analysis Telephone Conversations: Identification and Recognition Initiating Laughter Generating Applause Booing The Interactive Emergence of Sentences and Stories Integration of Talk and Nonvocal Activities Doing Shyness (and Self-Confidence) Studies of Institutions Job Interviews Executive Negotiations Calls to Emergency Centers Dispute Resolution in Mediation Hearings Criticisms of Traditional Sociology Separated From the Social Confusing Topic and Resource Stresses and Strains in Ethnomethodology Synthesis and Integration Ethnomethodology and the Micro-Macro Order 11. Exchange, Network, and Rational Choice Theories Exchange Theory Behaviorism Rational Choice Theory 17 The Exchange Theory of George Homans The Success Proposition The Stimulus Proposition The Value Proposition The Deprivation-Satiation Proposition The Aggression-Approval Propositions The Rationality Proposition Peter Blau’s Exchange Theory Micro to Macro Norms and Values The Work of Richard Emerson and His Disciples Power-Dependence A More Integrative Exchange Theory Network Theory Basic Concerns and Principles A More Integrative Network Theory Network Exchange Theory Structural Power Strong and Weak Power Structures Rational Choice Theory Foundations of Social Theory Collective Behavior Norms The Corporate Actor Criticisms 12. Contemporary Feminist Theory Feminism’s Basic Questions Historical Framing: Feminism, Sociology, and Gender Varieties of Contemporary Feminist Theory Gender Difference Cultural Feminism Theories of Sexual Difference Sociological Theories: Institutional and Interactionist Institutional Interactionist Gender Inequality Liberal Feminism Gender Oppression Psychoanalytic Feminism Radical Feminism 18 Structural Oppression Socialist Feminism Intersectionality Theory Feminism and Postmodernism Feminist Sociological Theorizing A Feminist Sociology of Knowledge The Macro-Social Order The Micro-Social Order Subjectivity 13. Micro-Macro and Agency-Structure Integration Micro-Macro Integration Micro-Macro Extremism The Movement Toward Micro-Macro Integration Examples of Micro-Macro Integration Integrated Sociological Paradigm Multidimensional Sociology The Micro Foundation…
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