1 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 NAME:_________________________ Materials Needed Pen Notebook HMH Earth Science Packet IS 1 Lab Kit Technology Needs Internet Rev. 5/5/21 The Integrated Science I Resource Center LMS Platform Website: _______________________ Computer HMH Online Resources Username: _______________________ Password: _______________________ Student Support Icons Title Icon Description Lab Wherever this icon is placed students will know that they need to perform a lab. Learning Coach Walks students through the credits by explaining each learning activity. Notebook Students know when they see this icon the assignment needs to be placed in their notebook. Review Questions This provides the student with a reminder that they need to answer the questions. Technology Guides students through the tasks and assignments that require the use of technology and manipulatives. Textbook Reading This icon lets the student know they will be reading out of the text. 2 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 NAME:_________________________ CREDIT 5A: STARS AND THE UNIVERSE Learning Goals for this Credit Communicate scientific information clearly, thoroughly and accurately. Design an investigation or model using appropriate scientific tools, resources and methods. Lesson 5.1 Title Observing the Universe 5.2 The Sun 5.3 Stars 5.4 The Universe Assignments  Connect to Essential Question  Exploration Activity  Reading and Questions  Videos (optional)  Making a Spectrum Lab  Review Questions  Connect to Prior Knowledge  Exploration Activity  Reading and Questions  Videos (optional)  Scientific Notation and the Sun  Review Questions  Connect to Prior Knowledge  Exploration Activity  Reading and Questions  Videos (optional)  Starquakes Hold Secrets of Stellar Evolution  Review Questions  Connect to Prior Knowledge  Exploration Activity  Reading and Questions  Videos (optional)  The Expanding Universe Lab  Review Questions 3 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 NAME:_________________________ Credit Materials Materials Needed Pen Notebook HMH Earth Science Packet Technology Needs Internet Computer HMH Online Resources CREDIT 5A: INTRODUCTION Read, “Why Study the Universe?” and watch the video “How Big is the Universe?” below. Then answer the essential question. What is the Universe? The universe is all of space and all of time. It is all of the matter and energy from the largest planet to the smallest atom. It includes you, everything you see around you, and even things you cannot see, like the air you breathe. When we look into the night sky we can see distant stars and planets. These are all part of the universe as well. The observable universe is everything we are able to see in space, but the universe is much larger than that. There are parts of the universe we cannot see because light from those areas of space have not reached us on Earth yet. So how big is the universe? Most scientists believe the universe is infinite and constantly expanding. But how can something be infinite, but also be expanding? The universe expansion can be thought of as stretching. As the universe “stretches” the distance between two objects, like two stars, increases. For example, if you draw two dots on a deflated balloon, and then blow air into that balloon, the distance between those two dots will increase as the balloon stretches. This constant “stretching” is what is causing the universe to expand, and not only is it expanding, the rate at which it is expanding is constantly increasing! 4 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 NAME:_________________________ An essential question is something that allows you to explore what the credit is about. Before you answer the question, examine the diagram below. Watch the video if you feel you need more information. Then, answer the essential question to the best of your ability. You will revisit it at the end of the credit to see if your answer has evolved. Video: How Big is the Universe? (4:16) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5NU2t5zlxQQ “How Big Is the Universe?” YouTube. MinutePhysics, 25 Feb. 213. Web. 04 June 2015. Essential Question Do you think that the universe has a starting point and ending point? Explain your answer. __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ 5 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 LESSON 5.1: OBSERVING THE UNIVERSE Learning Goals for this Credit Communicate scientific information clearly, thoroughly and accurately. Design an investigation or model using appropriate scientific tools, resources and methods. Learning Goals for this Lesson  Describe characteristics of the universe in terms of time, distance, and organization.  Identify the visible and nonvisible parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.  Compare refracting telescopes and reflecting telescopes.  Explain how telescopes for nonvisible electromagnetic radiation differ from light telescopes. Lesson Assignments  Connect to Essential Question  Exploration Activity  Reading and Questions  Videos (optional)  Making a Spectrum Lab  Review Questions Engage Connect to Essential Question Do you think the universe has a center? Explain your answer. __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ 6 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 Explore Exploration Activity Light enables us to view the world around us and to view the visible parts of the universe. When we look up at the night sky we see stars because of the light they emit. Light travels at a speed of 300,000 kilometers (km) per second (s). In one year, light travels 9,460,000,000,000 km. This distance is known as a light-year. Lightyears are used to measure vast distances in space. Aside from the sun, the closest star to Earth is 4.2 light-years away. Use the conversion factors below to calculate the distances between objects in our solar system and the universe. Make sure to show your work. 1 light-year = 9,460,000,000,000 km 1.6 km = 1 mile 8765 hours = 1 year Example: In one year light travels 9,460,000,000,000 km. How far is this in miles? To solve this type of problem we have to set up a ratio. 9.46 𝑥 1012 𝑘𝑚 x 1 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑒 1.6 𝑘𝑚 = When we multiply across we get: 9.46 𝑥 1012 𝑘𝑚 𝑥 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑒𝑠 1.6 𝑘𝑚 The kilometer units cancel. 9.46 𝑥 1012 𝑘𝑚 𝑥 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑒𝑠 1.6 𝑘𝑚 Then we divide to get the answer: 5.91 𝑥 1012 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑒𝑠 1. Our sun is 92,960,000 miles from Earth. What is the distance between the sun and Earth in kilometers? What is the distance in light-years? 7 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 2. Mars is the closest planet to Earth. Both Mars and Earth have different orbital speeds around the sun, but when Mars is closest to Earth it is still 55,000,000 km away. How far is this in miles? How far is this in light-years? 3. The closest star to Earth other than the sun is Alpha Centauri. It is 4.2 light-years away. How far away is Alpha Centauri in kilometers? How far away is Alpha Centauri in miles? 4. United States space shuttles travel at speeds of around 17,500 miles per hour. At that speed, how many years would it take to reach Alpha Centauri? 8 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 Explain Complete the reading activity below. In the first box take notes from the reading on the given topic. In the second box explain the reading through a visual, summary, example, or evidence. Reading  Holt McDougal Earth Science Chapter 26 Section 1 pages 721-728 The links below the reading assignments are to the digital version of the textbook. If you wish to complete the reading from your computer, or if you would like to listen to the audio version of the textbook, click the link and sign in using your HMH login issued to you by your teacher. What is the value in studying astronomy? Notes: Visual, summary, example, or evidence: How are distances measured in the universe? Notes: Visual, summary, example, or evidence: 9 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 Describe the electromagnetic spectrum. Notes: Visual, summary, example, or evidence: Describe 2 types of telescopes used to view objects in space. Notes: Visual, summary, example, or evidence: 10 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 Videos If you would like to learn more about this topic you can watch the videos below for more information. (Optional) Light seconds, light years, light centuries: How to measure extreme distances (5:29) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Op3AYaJc0Xw “Light seconds, light years, light centuries: How to measure extreme distances – Yuan-Sen Ting.” YouTube. TED-Ed, 9 Oct 2014. Web. 26 Apr 2021. How far is a light-year? The following video will explain just how large a lightyear is and how it relates to more familiar measurements. IDTIMWYTIM: Radiation (3:03) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uJ3ea9fa6CA “IDTIMWYTIM: Radiation.” YouTube. SciShow, 17 May 2012. Web. 30 June 2015. What is radiation? What kinds can we detect with our eyes and what kinds are invisible to us? This video will explain the different types of radiation found along the electromagnetic spectrum. 11 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 LESSON 5.2: THE SUN Learning Goals for this Credit Communicate scientific information clearly, thoroughly and accurately. Design an investigation or model using appropriate scientific tools, resources and methods. Learning Goals for this Lesson  Explain how the Sun converts matter into energy in its core.  Describe the layers of the suns interior and atmosphere.  Explain how sunspots are related to powerful magnetic fields on the sun.  Compare prominences, solar flares, and coronal mass ejections. Lesson Assignments  Connect to Prior Knowledge  Exploration Activity  Reading and Questions  Videos (optional)  Scientific Notation and the Sun  Review Questions Engage Connect to Prior Knowledge What do you think the sun is made of? __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ 14 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 Explore Exploration Activity Scientists use bar graphs as a tool to communicate data. Bar graphs make it easier to visualize a comparison of data values. A bar graph may be created from data in a table or data described in text. Usually, a bar graph includes descriptions or numerical values on the x-axis and numerical values on the y-axis. Using a bar graph, data values can be quickly compared simply by comparing the heights of the bars. Scientists might use a bar graph like the one below to compare the relative temperatures in different parts of the sun. Use the bar graph above to answer the following questions. 1. How hot is the radiative zone of the sun? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Which part of the sun reaches 15,000,000 °C? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 15 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 3. Which part of the sun has a temperature of about 2,000,000 °C? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Approximately how hot is the sun’s corona? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 5. From the data below, create a bar graph showing the temperatures of different parts of the sun’s atmosphere. Make sure to label all parts of your graph. Part of sun’s atmosphere Chromosphere (low) Chromosphere (high) Photosphere Sunspot Temperature (°C) 4,000 50,000 6,000 3,500 Holt McDougal. Earth Science Chapter 29 Graphing Skills Worksheet. Austin, TX: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, 2010. PDF. 16 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 Explain Complete the reading activity below. In the first box take notes from the reading on the given topic. In the second box explain the reading through a visual, summary, example, or evidence. Reading  Holt McDougal Earth Science Chapter 29 Section 1 pages 823-828 The links below the reading assignments are to the digital version of the textbook. If you wish to complete the reading from your computer, or if you would like to listen to the audio version of the textbook, click the link and sign in using your HMH login issued to you by your teacher. What elements primarily make up our Sun? Notes: Visual, summary, example, or evidence: Explain the process that creates the heat of the Sun. Notes: Visual, summary, example, or evidence: 17 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 Describe the layers of the Suns interior. Notes: Visual, summary, example, or evidence: Describe the layers of the Suns atmosphere. Notes:  Visual, summary, example, or evidence: Holt McDougal Earth Science Chapter 29 Section 2 pages 829-832 Why do sunspots appear darker than the areas that surround them? Notes: Visual, summary, example, or evidence: 18 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 Summarize the different types of solar eruptions. Notes: Visual, summary, example, or evidence: Videos If you would like to learn more about this topic you can watch the videos below for more information. (Optional) The Sun: Crash Course Astronomy #10 (12:03) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b22HKFMIfWo&list=PL8dPuuaLjXtPAJr1ysd5yGIyiSFuh0mIL&index=1 0 “The Sun: Crash Course Astronomy #10.” YouTube. CrashCourse, 19 Mar. 2015. Web. 01 July 2015. Want to know more about the Suns core, plasma, sun spots, and solar eruptions? This video will take a close look at our Sun and discuss how it impacts our planet. Sun VS. Atomic Bomb (3:44) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4BWh_rtYADw “Sun VS. Atomic Bomb.” YouTube. SciShow, 22 Mar. 2012. Web. 01 July 2015. How are the Sun and an atomic bomb similar? This video will explain just how powerful the nuclear fusion reactions taking place in our Sun actually are. 19 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 Elaborate Scientific Notation and the Sun The sun has immense size and extreme temperatures when compared with Earth. The numbers used to describe the sun can be large and unwieldy, but by using scientific notation these numbers can be easier to read and write. Scientific notation expresses large numbers as a number between 1 and 10 multiplied by a power of 10. For example, scientific notation expresses 800,000 as 8  105. A power of 10 is expressed as 10 with an exponent, or a number written above and to the right of another number. With powers of 10, the exponent tells how many zeros follow the number one. For example: 101 is 10  1, or 10 (one zero); 102 is 10  10, or 100 (two zeros); and 103 is 10  10  10, or 1,000 (three zeros). To write a large number in scientific notation, identify the digits that are not place-holding zeros. Place a decimal to the right of the left-most digit. To find the exponent of 10, count the number of places to the right of the decimal point. For example, for 72,000, you would place a decimal to the right of 7 to get 7.2 (a number between 1 and 10). The exponent of 10 would be 4, or the number of places to the right of the decimal. In scientific notation, 72,000 equals 7.2  104. Example: An example of a large number used in describing the sun is the temperature of some solar flares: 20,000,000 °C. Express 20,000,000 °C in scientific notation. Solution: Step 1: Place a decimal to the right of the left-most digit. 2.0 Step 2: Count the number of places to the right of the decimal. There are 7, so the exponent of 10 would be 7. 107  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10,000,000 Step 3: Write 20,000,000 in scientific notation. 20,000,000 °C  2.0  107 °C 20 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 Practice Problems: Using the example problem as a guide, answer the following questions in your notebook. Remember to show your work. 1. The temperature of the core of the sun is about 15,000,000 °C. Use scientific notation to write the temperature of the sun’s core. 2. The speed of light is approximately 300,000 km/s. Express this number using scientific notation. 3. The sun’s diameter is approximately 1,390,000 km. Use scientific notation to express the diameter of the sun. 4. The sun converts more than 4 million tons of matter to energy every second. Write 4 million tons using scientific notation. 5. Some gas jets that shoot out of the sun’s chromosphere reach 16,000 km in height. What is their height in scientific notation? Adapted from Holt McDougal Earth Science. Math Skills: Scientific Notation and the Sun. Austin, TX: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, 2010. PDF. Evaluate Review Questions Answer the following questions in your notebook. 1. Will the amount of hydrogen in our Sun increase or decrease over the next few million years? Explain your reasoning. 2. Why does nuclear fusion take place in the Suns core but not the other layers? 3. Explain how the Sun converts matter into energy at its core. 4. How does Einstein’s famous equation E = mc2 help scientists explain the huge amounts of energy produced by the Sun? 5. Explain why the Sun’s corona can be seen during an eclipse but not at other times? 6. Draw and label Figure 4 on page 826 of your textbook. 21 Integrated Science 1A Credit 5 LESSON 5.3:

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