A presentation about a problem in the community must contain statistics and pictures of the problem and consist of ten slides.

Explanation & Answer length: 10 Slides

Scientific Measurement – Careful, deliberate observations of the real world for the purpose of describing objects and events in terms of the attributes composing the variable. What are we measuring? ⦿ Conceptualization – The process through which we specify what we mean when we use particular terms in research. ⦿ Uses › Deductive—translate abstract into testable hypotheses involving specific variables › Inductive—make sense of related observations What are we measuring? ⦿ Concepts are fuzzy notions of things in the real world › › ⦿ Race Self-esteem An attribute is a characteristic or quality of something (ex: female, old, student). A variable is a logical set of attributes (ex: gender, age). ⦿ › › The attributes composing it should be exhaustive. Attributes must be mutually exclusive. What are we measuring? ⦿ Selecting Variables › › › › Theories Utility of variables in previous research Constraints and opportunities in research setting Relevance of variables to analysis at hand How will we measure? ⦿ Operationalization is the process to devise operations that actually measure intended concepts › Goal🡪 achieve measurement validity 1. 2. 3. 4. Define concepts Choose variables , considering purpose of research Identify construct indicators Feasibility Levels of Measurement ⦿ The mathematical precision with which the values of a variable can be expressed › The nominal level of measurement, which is qualitative, has no mathematical interpretation › The quantitative levels of measurement—ordinal, interval, and ratio—are progressively more precise mathematically. ⦿ Level of measurement is not inherent in variable, but is chosen by the researcher. Levels of Measurement–NOIR Reliability and Validity Increasing Reliability Test-Retest Method ■ Make the same measurement more than once. Established Measures Already tested for reliability Reliability of Research Workers Inter-observer reliability

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