FFRANCIS TURBINE QUESTIONS & DISCUSSIONS 7. 1 QUESTIONS 1. Plot a graph of: a. Turbine velocity versus flow rate. b. Turbine velocity versus output torque. c. Turbine velocity versus hydraulic power. d. Turbine velocity versus mechanical power. e. Turbine velocity versus efficiency. 2. Give your comment(s) from the graph obtained. ? Based on the graph Turbine velocity versus flow rate, it is shown that line for both z=50% and 100%is increasing when turbine velocity increase, flow rate also increasing. From the graph Turbin velocity versus output torque, it is shown that output torque for the both line will increase slightly when turbine velocity is increase ? In the Turbin velocity versus hydraulic power graph,the line shows water speed is increasing due to increasing of hydraulic power. Overall, when turbine velocity become large then it will increase hydraulic power. ? Graph of Turbin velocity versus mechanical power shows mechanical power increase when turbine velocity is going down. ? For the graph of Turbin velocity versus efficiency, it shows its efficiency decrease when turbine elocity increase. 3. State five (5) safety factors that have been taken in the experiment. There is five safety factors that should be taken while doing the experiment in laboratory: ? Make sure our hands are dry when switch on the switch of the machine ? Make sure the turbine is not stopped immediately as it tends to overspeed with emergency stops. ? Make sure the equipment function well before experiment get started. ? Must follow procedure going on the experiment so accident could be avoid during experiment. ? Make sure handling well the equipments during experiment and void silly behavior.
DISCUSSIONS Francis turbine is a type of water turbine that was developed by James B. Francis. It is an inward flow reaction turbine that combines radial and axial flow concepts. Francis turbines are the most common water turbine in use today. They operate in a head range of ten meters to several hundred meters and are primarily used for electrical power production. In real life, the basic operating system of the Francis Turbine is applied to generate hydroelectric power. To design the most efficiency hydroelectric generator, several factors -head, low rate, velocity, power and efficiency of the area should be taking into account. Hman is the differences of pressure head position which measured the pressure and the turbine shaft bar. It is a kinetic parameter which cause by water velocity. The height differences between the pressure gauging point position and the point of water level at the outflow of reservoir will influence the power of outlet. Lower river flows because of drought, climate change or upstream dams and diversions will reduce the amount of live storage in a reservoir therefore reducing the amount of water that can be used for ydroelectricity. The result of diminished river flow can be power shortages in areas that depend heavily on hydroelectric power. The turbine overall efficiency, is calculated as the ratio of power at outlet point compared to the generated power. It is because in natural the head and velocity of water source is not possible remaining constant. It will influence capacity factor lower than 100%. During the experiment, there might be some error that affects the result of this experiment. The errors that might occur are parallax error while recording the readings or inaccurate time counting.
Besides, before starting the experiment, the water lever of the tank storage should be checked for remaining at acceptable water lever. CONCLUSION From the experiment that was done, we can conclude that the turbine velocity is increase with the flow rate, output torque, and hydraulic power but decrease in efficiency and mechanical power. REFERENCES … Ab Aziz Abdul Latiff, Zawawi Daud, Noor Azila Ahmad, Hartini Kasmin, Wan Afnizan Wan Mohamed,… Zarina Md Ali. (2007). Hidraulik. Penerbit UTHM APPENDIX … Original Data Sheet

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