International Tourism: Cultures and Behavior This page intentionally left blank International Tourism: Cultures and Behavior First Edition Yvette Reisinger PhD AMSTERDAM • BOSTON • HEIDELBERG • LONDON • NEW YORK • OXFORD PARIS • SAN DIEGO • SAN FRANCISCO • SINGAPORE • SYDNEY • TOKYO Butterworth-Heinemann is an imprint of Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann is an imprint of Elsevier Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, UK 30 Corporate Drive, Suite 400, Burlington, MA 01803, USA Copyright © 2009, Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier’s Science & Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone (+44) (0) 1865 843830; fax (+44) (0) 1865 853333; email: permissions@elsevier.com. 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Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, in particular, independent verification of diagnoses and drug dosages should be made British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN: 978-0-7506-7897-1 For information on all Butterworth–Heinemann publications visit our web site at books.elsevier.com Printed and bound in Hungary 09 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Contents Preface List of Tables List of Figures Introduction Acknowledgements xvii xxi xxiii xxv xxix Part 1 International Tourism: The Global Environment CHAPTER 1 Globalization, tourism and culture 3 Introduction 1.1 The concept and roots of globalization 1.2 Benefits and criticism of globalization 1.3 Globalization and the tourism industry 1.3.1 The influence of globalization on tourism 1.3.2 Forms and examples of globalization in tourism 1.3.3 A new type of tourist 1.3.4 A new type of tourism 1.4 Globalization and culture 1.4.1 The emergence of globalized consumer culture? 1.4.2 Global consumer and global products? 1.4.3 Disappearance of local cultures? 1.4.4 Cultural homogenization? 1.4.5 Product standardization or customization? 1.4.6 Cultural heterogenization? 1.4.7 Cultural convergence or divergence? 1.4.8 Cultural hybridization? 1.4.9 Cultural commoditization? 1.4.10 Cultural deterioration, loss, adaptation or change? 1.4.11 Consumerism a bad thing for tourism? 1.4.12 Globalization and disappearance of local identity? 1.4.13 Resistance to cultural change and emergence of local identity 1.4.14 Glocalisation 3 3 6 8 8 9 10 13 15 15 16 16 17 18 19 19 19 20 20 21 21 22 23 v vi Contents 1.4.15 Local internationalization and regional cooperation 1.5 Benefits and limitations of globalization in tourism 1.6 Challenges of globalization in tourism 1.7 The future of globalization: Americanization of culture, cosmopolitan culture, cultural hybridization, cultural disappearance or culture clash? Summary Discussion points and questions Case Study 1.1: The emergence of a global tourist culture? Disneyland resorts spread over the world Website links CHAPTER 2 23 23 24 25 27 28 28 29 Cultural diversity 31 Introduction 2.1 The concept of cultural diversity 2.1.1 Definition 2.1.2 Interpretation of cultural diversity 2.1.3 How did the concept of cultural diversity develop? 2.1.4 How to measure cultural diversity? 2.1.5 Is cultural diversity important? 2.1.6 The benefits of cultural diversity 2.1.7 The influence of cultural diversity on tourism and hospitality 2.2 UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity 2.3 The future of cultural diversity 2.4 Challenges for the tourism and hospitality industry Summary Discussion points and questions Case Study 2.1: American in Paris Case Study 2.2: Creativity in a tense situation Case Study 2.3: Promoting the “unpromotional” Website links 31 32 32 33 34 34 34 35 35 37 39 40 41 42 42 43 44 45 Part 2 Cultural Theories and Practices Chapter 3 Intercultural theories 49 Introduction 3.1 Communication Resourcefulness Theory (CRT) 49 50 Contents 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 Chapter 4 Episode Representation Theory (ERT) Expectations Theory (ET) Cultural Identity Negotiation Theory (CINT) Meaning of Meaning Theory Network Theory in Intercultural Communication Taxonomic Approach (TA) Anxiety/Uncertainty Management Theory (AUMT) Stranger Theory Face-Negotiation Theory Intercultural Adaptation Theory (IAT) Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT) Coordinated Management of Meaning Theory (CMMT) 3.14 Constructivist Theory (CT) Summary Discussion points and questions Website links 51 52 53 54 54 56 57 59 59 59 60 Cultural practices and tourism impacts on culture 67 Introduction 4.1 Erosion of local cultures 4.2 Cultural commoditization and transformation 4.3 Cultural hostility 4.4 Cultural arrogance 4.5 Authenticity of tourism experiences 4.6 Renaissance of traditional art forms 4.7 Marketing of culture and violation of rights to own cultural heritage 4.8 Culture change 4.9 Culture diffusion 4.10 Cultural borrowing 4.11 Cultural drift 4.12 Acculturation 4.13 Cultural adaptation 4.14 Cultural adjustment 4.15 Culture assimilation 4.16 Enculturation 4.17 Demonstration effect 4.18 Cultural conflict 67 67 68 68 68 69 69 63 64 64 65 65 70 70 71 71 72 73 74 75 75 77 77 78 vii viii Contents Summary Discussion points and questions Case Study 4.1: Discovering the Maori culture Website links 80 80 81 82 Part 3 Culture and Cultural Differences CHAPTER 5 Culture 85 Introduction 5.1 Definition of culture 5.2 Culture as civilization 5.3 Cultures by region 5.4 Culture as religion 5.5 The world’s major religions 5.6 Religion by region 5.7 Types and levels of culture 5.8 Civilization 5.9 Types of cultures in tourism 5.10 The purpose of culture 5.11 Characteristics of culture 5.12 Subcultures 5.13 Culture versus nationality 5.14 Culture versus country of residence 5.15 Culture versus country of birth 5.16 Cultural identity 5.17 Cultural distance 5.18 The impact of cultural distance on travel 5.19 The measurement of cultural distance Summary Discussion points and questions Case Study 5.1: Micro-cultures of the US Website links 85 86 91 91 92 92 96 98 101 104 104 105 106 109 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 115 117 CHATPER 6 Cultural variability Introduction 6.1 Sources of cultural differences 6.2 Cultural values 6.2.1 Concept and definitions 6.2.2 Culture and values 119 119 119 122 122 123 Contents 6.2.3 6.2.4 6.2.5 6.2.6 6.2.7 6.2.8 6.2.9 Value system and value orientation Value orientation Types of values Classification of values Measurement and analysis of values Value studies in tourism Cultural value dimensions 6.2.9.1 Parson’s pattern variables 6.2.9.2 Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck’s value orientation 6.2.9.3 Stewart’s cultural patterns 6.2.9.4 Hall’s cultural differentiation 6.2.9.5 Hofstede’s dimensions of cultural variability 6.2.9.6 Bond’s Confucian cultural patterns 6.2.9.7 Argyle’s cultural differentiation 6.2.9.8 Schein’s, Trompenaars’ and Maznevski’s cultural differentiation 6.2.9.9 Schneider and Barsoux’s cultural assumptions 6.2.9.10 Inglehart’s cultural dimensions 6.2.9.11 Minkov’s World Value Survey Summary Discussion points and questions Exercises Case Study 6.1: The US culture Website links CHAPTER 7 123 124 124 124 125 127 127 128 129 132 134 139 150 151 152 154 155 155 161 161 161 162 163 Cultural influences on intercultural communication 165 Introduction 7.1 The concept of communication 7.2 What is intercultural communication? 7.3 Difficulties in intercultural communication 7.3.1 Verbal signals 7.3.2 Non-verbal signals 7.3.3 Relationship patterns 7.3.4 Conversation style 7.3.5 Interaction style 7.3.6 Values 165 166 167 168 168 170 173 178 180 181 ix x Contents 7.3.7 Time orientation 7.3.8 Context orientation 7.4 Is intercultural communication possible? 7.5 Ethnocentrism 7.6 Stereotyping 7.7 Prejudices 7.8 Racism 7.9 Strategies for improving intercultural communication 7.10 The ethics of intercultural communication Summary Discussion points and questions Case Study 7.1: Courtesy and politeness in Thailand and Australia Website links CHATPER 8 Cultural influences on social interaction Introduction 8.1 The concept of scoial interaction 8.2 Social interaction in tourism 8.2.1 The nature of tourist–host social interaction 8.2.2 Context 8.3 Intercultural social interaction 8.3.1 Dimensions of intercultural encounters 8.3.2 Interculturalness of social interaction 8.3.3 Degree of interculturalness 8.4 Types of intercultural interaction 8.5 Model of cross-cultural social interaction 8.6 Contact hypothesis 8.7 Contact hypothesis in tourism 8.8 Difficulties in cross-cultural interaction 8.9 Culture shock 8.9.1 Symptoms of culture shock 8.9.2 Types of culture shock 8.9.3 How long does culture shock last? 8.9.4 Culture shock and social interaction 8.9.5 Culture shock in tourism 8.9.6 Phases of culture shock 8.9.7 Intensity and duration of culture shock 8.9.8 Doxey’s Irridex ‘‘Irritation Index’’ 187 187 190 192 192 194 195 195 196 196 197 197 198 199 199 199 201 205 206 209 209 209 210 210 211 212 213 213 214 215 216 216 216 216 217 219 220 Contents Summary Discussion points and questions Case Study 8.1: Shanghai night or nightmare? Website links CHATPER 9 Cultural influences on rules of social interaction Introduction 9.1 Rules of social interaction 9.2 Orders and types of rules 9.3 Relationship rules 9.4 Cultural influences on rules of social interaction 9.5 Understanding rules of social interaction 9.6 Breaking rules 9.7 Cross-cultural differences in rules of social interaction Summary Discussion points and questions Case Study 9.1: Universal and specific rules of social relationships Websites CHATPER 10 Cultural influences on service Introduction 10.1 The concept of service 10.2 Service encounter 10.3 Service classification 10.4 Key characteristics of service 10.5 Importance of service perceptions 10.6 Cultural differences in expectations from service 10.7 Service quality and value 10.8 Service satisfaction 10.9 Do cultural differences always matter? Summary Discussion points and questions Case Study 10.1: Chinese travelers in France Website links CHATPER 11 Cultural influences on ethics Introduction The concept of ethics 11.1 Ethics in tourism 221 222 222 223 225 225 225 226 227 227 228 228 229 229 230 230 231 233 233 233 234 234 234 237 237 238 240 240 241 241 242 242 243 243 244 245 xi xii Contents 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 Ethics in a cross-cultural context Cultural influences in ethical behavior The most debatable business ethics issues Conflicting ethical behavior and practices in tourism and hospitality. Ethical dilemmas 11.6 Theories and frameworks dealing with ethical dilemmas 11.7 Strategies for managing business ethical dilemmas 11.8 Global Code of Ethics for Tourism Summary Discussion points and questions Case Study 11.1: Global Code of Ethics for Tourism Website links Part 4 247 247 248 251 254 256 257 257 258 258 261 Tourist Behavior CHATPER 12 Human behavior: its nature and determinants Introduction 12.1 The concept of human behavior 12.2 Environmental factors influencing human behavior 12.3 Theories of human behavior 12.3.1 Cause-Motive-Behavior-Goal Theory 12.3.2 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 12.3.3 Alderfer’s ERG Theory 12.3.4 Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman’s Two-Factor Theory 12.3.5 Expectancy Theory 12.3.6 Cognitive Dissonance Theory 12.3.7 Reinforcement Theory 12.3.8 Equity Theory 12.3.9 McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory 12.4 Basic needs of human behavior 12.5 Factors influencing human needs 12.6 The concept of tourist behavior 12.7 The nature of tourist behavior 12.8 The meaning of tourist behavior 12.9 The importance of studying tourist behavior 12.10 The importance of studying tourist behavior in a cross-cultural context 265 265 266 268 270 271 272 276 276 276 277 277 277 278 278 279 279 279 281 282 283 Contents 12.11 Benefits of understanding tourist behavior in a cross-cultural context 12.11.1 Tourism industry perspective 12.11.2 Tourist perspective 12.11.3 Local resident perspective Summary Discussion points and questions Case Study 12.1: The Asian woman’s shopping experience: New research from Thailand Website links CHATPER 13 Consumer buying behavior Introduction 13.1 Environmental Factors 13.1.1 Environmental stimuli 13.2 Buyer’s factors 13.2.1 Buyer’s personal characteristics 13.2.2 Decision process 13.3 Other theories of consumer decision-making Summary Discussion points and questions Website links CHATPER 14 Cultural influences on tourist buying behavior Introduction 14.1 Cultural influence on buyer’s personal characteristics 14.1.1 Gender roles 14.1.2 Lifestyle and activities 14.1.3 Personality 14.1.4 The self concept 14.2 Cultural influences on buyer’s psychological characteristics 14.2.1 Motivation and needs 14.2.2 Perception and image 14.2.3 Learning and knowledge 14.2.4 Attitudes 14.2.5 Attribution 14.3 Cultural influences on buyer’s decision process 14.3.1 Need recognition 284 284 285 286 287 287 288 288 289 289 291 291 301 301 305 318 318 319 320 321 321 322 322 323 324 325 326 326 326 328 329 330 330 330 xiii xiv Contents 14.3.2 14.3.3 14.3.4 14.3.5 14.3.6 Information search and choice of information sources 14.3.2.1 The role of reference groups 14.3.2.2 The role of opinion leadership 14.3.2.3 Family decision making 14.3.2.4 Buying roles 14.3.2.5 Level of decision-making 14.3.2.6 Buying new products Criteria and product evaluation Purchase decision 14.3.4.1 Purchase risk Post-purchase behavior/decision 14.3.5.1 Satisfaction 14.3.5.2 Loyalty and commitment 14.3.5.3 Criticism and complaints 14.3.5.4 Product disposal Beyond the purchase decision 14.3.6.1 Memories and meanings 14.3.6.2 Emotions and feelings Summary Discussion points and questions Case Study 14.1: Japanese tourist behavior Case Study 14.2: Cultural influences on tourist behavior Website links Part 5 331 332 332 333 333 333 334 335 337 337 339 339 339 340 341 341 341 342 343 343 344 344 345 Cross-Cultural Comparison CHATPER 15 Cultural differences among international societies Introduction 15.1 Africa 15.2 Asia 15.3 Australia 15.4 Europe 15.4.1 Important European values 15.5 India 15.6 Latin America 15.7 Middle East 15.8 North America Summary 349 349 349 350 357 359 359 364 365 366 368 369 Contents Discussion points and questions Case Study 15.1: Managing in Asia: Cross-cultural dimensions Website links Part 6 369 371 373 Multicultural Competence CHATPER 16 Multicultural competence in a global world Introduction 16.1 The concept of multicultural competence 16.2 Dimensions of multicultural competence 16.2.1 Cognitive domain 16.2.2 Affective domain 16.3 Other factors influencing multicultural competence 16.4 Multicultural competence as a process 16.5 Multicultural competence development levels 16.6 Multiculturalism assessment techniques 16.7 An educational challenge Summary Discussion points and questions Case Study 16.1: One practical solution to overcoming the language barrier Website links 377 377 378 378 379 381 384 384 384 385 386 386 386 387 387 Conclusion 389 References 391 xv This page intentionally left blank Preface There is no doubt that international tourism expanded significantly in the last decade. International tourism has also been forecasted to reach unprecedented numbers in the years to come. The consequences of such increased international travel can be very diverse. The question arises whether international tourism enhances understanding among people and the level of their enjoyment, or increases the likelihood of cultural misunderstanding and conflict.The argument of this book is that in order for the tourism industry to be successful in the future, managers and marketers need to be aware of and sensitive to cultural differences among international tourist markets. Learning about, understanding, and respecting the national cultures of others can prevent potential cultural misunderstanding and conflict in international tourism, significantly improve social contact between international tourists and local hosts, enhance tourist satisfaction with travel products, and generate repeat visitation. There is a widely held assumption that tourism promotes understanding and peace. However, there is also evidence that individuals group themselves around the core values of their national cultures. Usually people who share cultural similarities understand and interact with each other more easily than people from different cultures. Those who are from different cultures do not understand each other well and may even be in conflict with each other. An increase in international travel and social exchanges among culturally different people may be a highly dividing force; social exchanges among culturally different individuals may increase interpersonal tensions and intolerance. It is very likely that increased contact between individuals from different cultures may in fact generate clashes of values, disharmonies, social barriers, and even very threatening experiences. This notion is supported by the distinctiveness theory from social psychology that holds that people do not define themselves by what makes them similar to others; rather, they define themselves by what makes them different from others. People want to distinguish themselves from others and be seen as unique. International travel and tourism create opportunities for social exchanges and emphasize peoples’ cultural origins and identities, sometimes to the dissatisfaction of others.This establishes the grounds for undermining the others’ values, exhibiting hostility toward the others’ culture, breeding resentment, and even provoking rejection. However, these negative feelings can be avoided if people accept and learn to respect others and their cultures.This is the only way to successfully maintain the character of global international tourism, whose future will be determined by cultural factors. This book alerts the reader to the fact that individuals’ behavior is culturally bound. Culture and cultural values pervasively influence how individuals act and react. This book explains how deeply national culture of the individual determines human behavior and how important culture is for understanding tourist behavior and the operations of the tourism industry. xvii xviii Preface This book focuses on the differences in behavior among international tourists and hosts. A tourist is defined in this book as a temporary visitor staying at least 24 hours in a region for the purpose of leisure (holiday, sport, study, or recreation), business, family (visiting friends and relatives), or meetings and conferences. However, the term tourist can have a range of meanings, depending upon categories of tourists that vary by the degree of institutionalization, type of encounter exchange, form of travel, traveler’s status, and so forth. Some academics refer to tourists as sojourners. The definition of a tourist is further accentuated when one starts crossing cultural borders. For example, in many parts of the South Pacific tourists are treated as guests rather than tourists. Thus, for the purpose of this book a tourist is defined as a culturally different international visitor who sojourns at a destination for a minimum of 24 hours and a maximum of 12 months for the purpose of holiday, business, study, family, sport, or conference. Hosts are defined either as (a) local residents, (b) people of the visited country, or (c) those employed in the tourism industry who provide a service to tourists. For the purpose of this book the host is defined as a resident of the visited country. This can be either an international resident of a destination or someone who is employed in the local tourism industry and provides a service to tourists (e.g., hotelier, front office employee, waiter, shop assistant, customs official, tour guide, tour manager, and taxi or bus driver).This type of host is often referred to as a ‘professional host’. This book explains how national cultures of tourists and hosts influence their social behavior and why tourists and hosts behave the way they do. In order to understand the behavioral differences among international tourists and hosts, one must learn about the concept of human behavior in tourism and the factors that influence this behavior. There are many diverse definitions and theoretical approaches to the study of human behavior. The concept of human behavior is multidisciplinary. It has borrowed many ideas developed in other scientific disciplines, such as psychology, sociology, social psychology, anthropology, economics, marketing, and management. As a result, the concept of human behavior has different meanings in each discipline. In tourism, some concepts that define tourist behavior have also been borrowed from the above disciplines, as well as from recreation, geography, urban and regional planning, transportation, law, agriculture, and education. It is no surprise that defining tourist behavior is a complex and difficult process. In order to explain the concept and avoid any confusion caused by its multidisciplinary nature, there is a need to examine it in the context in which tourist behavior currently takes place or will take place in the future, that is, international tourism. Today, a solid understanding of the influence of national cultures on tourist behavior and the identification of cultural differences and similarities among international tourist markets has become more crucial than ever before. The international tourism industry is facing globalization, and an increasing number of tourists from different cultures are crossing national borders.This creates challenges for an industry attempting to standardize its products and consumers globally. Tourist behavior is culturally Preface bound. In order to successfully market the tourism product to international tourists, the industry must have a cultural knowledge of its target markets. In the author’s opinion, cultural factors have the most direct and influential effect on tourist behavior. Cultural factors are the most significant determinants of international tourist behavior. A detailed cultural analysis of the international tourist background gives a richer and more robust portrait of tourist behavior than any other discipline can provide alone. Understanding tourist behavior from the cultural point of view allows marketers and managers to better identify how national cultures influence tourists’ purchases, choices, and experiences. Cultural variables can explain in a much better way many objective aspects of tourist behavior, such as the preferences for specific products and destinations, as well as subjective aspects of tourist behavior, such as the influence of emotions, beliefs, or customs on these preferences. Cultural variables can better explain the reasons for specific tourist reactions to the external environment. By using a cultural approach to understanding tourists and tourism, marketers and managers can make better strategic decisions. Different cultural groups of tourists behave differently.They have different travel needs and motivation, engage in different search-and-learning processes, and are influenced by distinct internal and external environmental stimuli. Different cultural tourist groups develop different images and perceptions of travel products and assign different degrees of importance to product attributes. Culturally distinct groups of tourists also have different expectations and awareness, seek different benefits, and use different choice criteria. Culturally different tourists develop different attitudes; they have different opinions, emotions, and tendencies to buy.They not only have different preferences for travel lifestyle, accommodation, and food, but also color, numbers, and packaging. Their experiences and product evaluations differ, as well. Culturally different tourists select different destinations, respond to different communication practices, and are influenced by different promotional strategies and incentives. Culturally different tourists differ in how they communicate their reactions of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. They express different levels of loyalty and have different degrees of satisfaction with a product. In summary, in order to be successful, tourism marketers should have cultural knowledge of their target markets.They must know and understand the major value orientations of their customers, and be aware of and sensitive to cultural differences among international tourist markets and local hosts. Tourism marketers and managers should learn, understand, and respect the influence of national culture on human behavior. xix This page intentionally left blank List of Tables Table 1.1 Table 1.2 Table 1.3 Table 1.4 Table 2.1 Table 5.1 Table 5.2 Table 6.1 Table 6.2 Table 6.3 Table 6.4 Table 6.5 Table 6.6 Table 6.7 Table 6.8 Table 7.1 Table 7.2 Table 7.3 Table 7.4 Table 7.5 Table 7.6 Table 7.7 Table 7.8 Table 8.1 Table 8.2 Table 8.3 Table 9.1 Table 13.1 Table 13.2 Table 13.3 Definitions of globalization Dimensions of globalization The influence of globalization on tourism Global values and new tourism products US labor force World’s major religions The world’s eight major civilizations Rokeach’s instrumental and terminal values Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck’s (1961) value orientation Characteristics of low- and high-context cultures Characteristics of in-groups and out-groups Evaluation of various countries on Hofstede and Hofstede’s (2005) five value dimensions Ranking of various countries on Hofstede and Hofstede’s (2005) five value dimensions Ronen and Shenkar’s country clusters and Hofstede’s culture dimensions A comparison of distinct cultural orientations towards the world and people Verbal signals affecting intercultural communication Non-verbal signals affecting intercultural communication Relationship patterns in communication affecting intercultural communication Conversation styles affecting intercultural communication Styles of interaction affecting intercultural communication Values affecting intercultural communication Time orientation as it affects intercultural communication Context orientation as it affects intercultural communication Major features of social interaction Typology of a tourist Symptoms of culture shock Types of rules of social interaction Future consumer segments and their buying needs Future important market segments Factors influencing pre-purchase information search xxi xxii List of Tables Table 13.4 Table 13.5 Table 13.6 Table 13.7 Table 15.1 Table 15.2 Table 15.3 Table 15.4 Table 15.5 Table 15.6 Table 16.1 Criteria used to evaluate tourism destinations Example of ratings for hypothetical destinations Destination purchase decision: attribute criteria Types of risk associated with tourism Cultural differences between Mandarin-speaking tourists and Australian hosts Cultural differences between Indonesian tourists and Australian hosts Cultural differences between Japanese and Australian characteristics Cultural differences between Thai and Australian characteristics Evaluation of the European countries on Hofstede and Hofstede’s (2005) cultural dimensions Major values and orientations of the US population A self-evaluation form for assessing multicultural competence List of Figures Figure 3.1 Figure 3.2 Figure 3.3 Figure 3.4 Figure 3.5 Figure 3.6 Figure 3.7 Figure 3.8 Figure 3.9 Figure 3.10 Figure 4.1 Figure 5.1 Figure 5.2 Figure 5.3 Figure 5.4 Figure 5.5 Figure 5.6 Figure 5.7 Figure 5.8 Figure 6.1 Figure 7.1 Figure 8.1 Figure 8.2 Figure 8.3 Figure 8.4 Figure 8.5 Figure 12.1 Figure 12.2 Figure 12.3 Figure 12.4 Figure 12.5 Figure 12.6 Communication Resourcefulness Theory (CRT) Episode Representation Theory (ERT) Expectations Theory (ET) Cultural Identity Negotiation Theory (CINT) Social Network Theory (SNT) Taxonomic Approach (TA) Anxiety/Uncertainty Management Theory (AUMT) Intercultural Adaptation Theory (IAT) Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT) Coordinated Management of Meaning Theory (CMMT) Acculturation-assimilation continuum The concept and elements of culture Major religious groups as a percentage of the world’s population in 2005 Map of prevailing religions in the world Abrahamic and Indian religions in the world Christian and Muslim religions around the world Levels of culture Relationships between dominant culture and minor subcultures A-G Cultural differences among cultures and subcultures according to Samovar and Porter (1991) Key dimensions of culture Communication model A continuum of interculturalness The cross-cultural interaction model The U-curve and W-curve of cultural change and adaptation over time The acculturation curve Doxey’s Irridex “Irritation Index” Major aspects of human behavior Levels of the environment influencing human behavior Categories and sources of motivation Cause-Motive-Behavior-Goal model (Leavitt et al., 1990) Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (original 5-stage model) xxiii Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (8-stage model) xxiv List of Figures Figure 12.7 Figure 12.8 Figure 13.1 Figure 13.2 Figure 13.3 Figure 16.1 Figure 16.2 Figure 16.3 Figure 16.4 Figure 16.5 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and information sought at different needs levels Factors influencing human needs Consumer buying behavior process The influence of buyer’s personal and psychological characteristics on decision process Types of products from which consumers make selection A conceptual model of multicultural competence The cognitive domain of multicultural competence An affective domain of multicultural competence A behavioral domain of multicultural competence An environmental domain of multicultural competence Introduction The modern tourism environment is experiencing an increasing internationalization and globalization. Advances in technology, communication, and transportation are enhancing people’s mobility and travel, and leading to their exposure to culturally different societies, social interactions, and cultural exchanges. This book argues that it is imperative for the tourism and hospitality industry representatives, who operate in the international business environment and deal with international tourists on a daily basis, to understand the national cultures of the tourists and the influence of these cultures on tourist behavior. Tourism and hospitality graduates who will work in a very complex multicultural tourism environment must understand how national culture affects the relationships between guests and hosts, the quality of services expected by the guests, their perceptions of tourism products, their vacation experiences, their satisfaction, and, ultimately, their repeat visitation. The culturally different tourist is the target of the international tourism industry. Currently,Asia is the major international market generating tourism around the world. New emerging markets are Central and Eastern European, as well as Latin American. The business challenge will be to better understand the cultural diversity of these tourist markets, and to determine how these markets will experience and perceive the outside world and engage in cultural exchanges. It is imperative that a new class of tourism managers, marketers, and industry professionals enter the industry with multicultural skills. Cross-cultural competencies are critical as the tourism and hospitality industry moves into the 21st century. Ignoring cultural differences among international tourist markets and the impact of tourists’ national cultures on their behavior and travel decision-making will undermine tourism destinations’ efforts in achieving their objectives. Although the number of cross-cultural studies investigating the influence of national culture on consumer behavior has increased in the last decade, information on cultural differences among international tourist markets is not yet readily available in the tourism literature. The concept of culture is very complex. The analysis of culture in a multidisciplinary tourism context and the application of the concept of culture to the abstract psychological concepts of perception, attitude, or satisfaction, all of which have different meanings in different cultures, create problems. Consequently, more information is required on the influence of cultural characteristics on international tourist behavior. With tourism businesses becoming more global and with thousands of professionals hosting international guests, it is becoming increasingly important to analyze and understand the cultural differences among international visitors and the impact of these differences on tourist behavior. Such analysis should allow for identification of similarities and differences among international tourists, as well as locals and decision-makers in different countries. It should also contribute to more adequate and effective tourism marketing and management. Given all of the above, it was felt that the most effective and appropriate response xxv to the current and future international tourism needs was to prepare a textbook that xxvi Introduction would focus on cross-cultural differences in tourist behavior and explain the influence of cultural differences on international tourist behavior. This book is intended to complement the Butterworth-Heinemann title Cross-Cultural Behaviour in Tourism: Concepts and Analysis, written by Y. Reisinger and L. Turner for the graduate market. This graduate version is primarily a research reference book that provides in-depth insights into concepts, definitions, and measures of cultural components and that focuses on the statistical tools for analyzing cultural differences and testing substantive theories. The graduate-level book was written under the assumption that many readers do not use quantitative methods due to statistical complexity. The current book is a simplified version of the graduate-level book. It is designed specifically for the undergraduate market. The current book does not replicate the graduate version. The statistical material has been eliminated and new chapters added. Because of the enduring nature of the subject, some concepts (e.g., culture, values, social interaction, rules of social behavior, service quality) have been retained.The chapters discussing these concepts have been rewritten and efforts have been made to include the newest approaches to the concepts. Aims The major aims of the current book are: 1. To explain the impact of globalization on international tourism and culture 2. To present the role and the importance of cultural diversity to the tourism industry 3. To understand major cultural theories and their applications to tourist behavior 4. To explain major cultural practices and the impact of international tourism on the tourist and host culture 5. To discuss the concept of national culture and cultural differences 6. To identify major cultural differences among the international tourist markets such as Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, India, Latin and North America, and the Middle East 7. To show how cultural differences among the international tourist markets influence tourist behavior and, in particular, communication, social interaction, perceptions and satisfaction with service, and buying decision process 8. To explain the importance of cross-cultural awareness, sensitivity, and competency skills for international tourism managers and marketers 9. To understand the need for a cultural approach to destination marketing. Scope The book can be used in the following disciplines: Tourism – The book determines how national characteristics of international tourist behavior contribute to the development of tourist experiences. Marketing – The book shows that understanding the cultural background of international tourists helps in formulating marketing strategies that promise to respond to the cultural needs of these tourists; indicates the importance of a cultural approach Introduction xxvii to marketing in order to increase international tourist visitation; and allows for direct comparison of cultural orientations of international tourist markets. Management – The book helps to understand which cross-cultural skills need to be acquired by future tourism and hospitality managers to enable them to understand, effectively deal with, and motivate international tourists to visit a destination. International business – The book implies which strategies need to be applied by today’s international business professionals to be able to work effectively within multicultural tourism environments. Cross-cultural communication – The book broadens knowledge of the theory and practice of the cross-cultural encounter and communication by suggesting specific skills necessary for an effective interaction and communication with culturally different tourist markets. Reader benefits This book presents definitions and explains the cultural factors that influence tourist behavior in an international tourism context. It gives a theoretical understanding of the abstract concepts of culture and cultural differences. It summarizes the most frequently used cultural value dimensions and explains their influences on intercultural communication and interaction. It presents models of tourist behavior and explains cultural influences on tourist purchasing behavior.The book explains what to do with all this cultural theoretical knowledge. This book also discusses the practical implications of the cultural influences on international tourist behavior for tourism marketing, management, and communication strategies. The book describes the psyche of the average tourist; identifies major cultural characteristics of the main international tourist markets, such as Asia, Australia, Europe, Latin America, the Middle East, and the United States, and gives guidelines on how to meet the needs of these markets. This book should be a loud wake-up call for those who underestimate the significance of cultural differences in tourism. It addresses the current debate about how to respond to the needs of culturally diverse tourists in a globalized world.The book offers a solution to this debate by emphasizing the importance of being culturally aware and sensitive to international tourist markets’ needs and understanding how the cultural background of these markets influences tourist experiences. As a result of being able to understand the tourists’ cultural needs, the industry’s managers and marketers may be able to differentiate their products, deliver those products more effectively and efficiently, and improve their social relations with international tourists. This book is also a hard hit at those who operate with preconceived cultural assumptions, or form their own cultural perspective. For those who are already sensitive to cross-cultural issues, the book provides a valuable checklist of what one should bear in mind. xxviii Introduction Moreover, this book is a vital piece in the jigsaw puzzle of tourism impacts because it indicates potential outcomes of tourist behavior in the cross-cultural context and explains how, and under what conditions, these impacts occur and manifest themselves. The structure of this book allows for it to be used as a textbook for tourism students worldwide. The author hopes the book will have good longevity, as it does discuss aspects that do not change in the short term. General market The most suitable academic level is first-, second-, and third-year undergraduate-level courses in tourist behavior, tourism marketing and management, tourism analysis, and cross-cultural communication.The book can also be used as a reference text for graduate tourism and hospitality students, those with undergraduate degrees in areas other than tourism, university academics, and researchers involved in all aspects of travel and tourism. The secondary market comprises tourism practitioners who interact and communicate with culturally different international tourists. Providing detailed information about the fundamental cultural differences between tourists from various countries, the book allows practitioners to improve their managerial, interpersonal, and communication skills. Industry people will find the presented mini cases to be particularly useful as benchmark practices. However, this book should not be considered a handbook or a “know-how” manual for practitioners. The book has an international orientation; it can serve the various international student, academic and industry markets that can access books written in English. The book provides case studies which are all international in nature. Despite a “Westernworld” orientation that is due to the origin and experience of the authors, the text was written with the intention of benefiting readers from various cultural backgrounds. The author hopes the book will be popular for a long time to come. Although it has been written for academic readers, the author recognizes that many of its readers will be from various industries as well as a variety of businesses. The author hopes she can better serve your needs. Yvette Reisinger, Ph.D.Temple University Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA Acknowledgements I would like to acknowledge and thank Professor Frederic Dimanche from CERAM Business School, Nice, Sophia Antipolis, France for his comments on the initial draft of this book. I owe gratitude to some of his students for permitting to use portions of their assignments and converting them into mini case studies. Yvette Reisinger xxix PART International Tourism: The Global Environment 1 Part one discusses the concept of globalization, its impacts on international tourism, and the changes it brings in culture and tourist behavior. The importance of cultural diversity in tourism is highlighted. This page intentionally left blank CHAPTER Globalization, tourism and culture 1 The aim of this chapter is to explain the concept of globalization and its impact on international tourism and culture. OBJECTIVES After completing this chapter the reader should be able to: & Understand the concept of globalization & Identify benefits and criticism of globalization & Understand the impact of globalization on tourism & Understand the impact of globalization on culture & Explain the challenges and future of globalization INTRODUCTION Today, there is a trend in the tourism sector towards globalization. Many tourism organizations are global organizations operating across national borders. But what is globalization, and how does it affect tourism and consumer behavior in tourism? This chapter explains the concept of globalization and its impact on tourism, tourist behavior, and culture. 1.1 THE CONCEPT AND ROOTS OF GLOBALIZATION Globalization is a complex and multidimensional process. There are five key related definitions of globalization that significantly highlight different elements. According to Scholte (2000), globalization should be defined in terms of internationalization, 3 4 CHAPTER 1 Globalization, tourism and culture Table 1.1 Definitions of Globalization Globalization as internationalization A process of developing cross-border relations between countries and international exchange and interdependence between people in different countries; describes a growing flow of trade, capital, and goods beyond the border of a national economy to a stronger, globalized economy. Globalization as liberalization A process of removing government-imposed trade barriers, capital controls, and restrictions on the flow of goods between countries in order to create an open, borderless world economy or socalled ‘‘free-trade’’ economy. Globalization as universalization A worldwide process of spreading objects and experiences to people at all corners of the earth (e. g., spreading computing, television, etc.). Globalization as Westernization or modernization A process of Americanizing the economy; a dynamic process that spreads the social structures of modernity, such as capitalism, rationalism, and industrialism around the world, destroying preexisting cultures and local self-identity. Globalization as deterritorialization A process of spreading supraterritoriality; reconfiguring geography so that territorial places, distances, and borders do not exist; linking distant places in such a way that what is happening locally is determined by events occurring many miles away. Source: http://www.infed.org/biblio/globalization.htm Source: Scholte, J. (2000). Globalization. A critical introduction. London: Palgrave. liberalization, universalization, Westernization or modernization, and deterritorialization. The explanation of the above terms is provided in Table 1.1. Globalization has powerful economic, cultural, social, environmental, political, and technological dimensions, and as such should be viewed from different perspectives. However, most definitions refer to globalization in economic terms as the process that merges national economies into an interdependent global economic system. This process includes forming regional economic trading blocs, growing local internationalization through developing economic ties, deepening multinationalization by multinational firms, introducing global norms and standards, developing global markets and strategies, and growing firms with no specific national operational base. The phenomenon of globalization has increased interconnectedness between societies in various areas of life (Saee, 2004). Various dimensions of globalization are explained in Table 1.2. The concept of globalization has often been used in the past. For decades people referred to the process of globalization in terms of decentralizing production to different countries, and internalizing capital and labor markets, export, and imports. The concepts of modernization, capitalism, and economic interdependence have also often been used to understand the precursors of globalization. However, today, the form of globalization has changed. While in past decades globalization has been described as flows of goods and population, now globalization is described by the movements 1.1 The concept and roots of globalization 5 Table 1.2 Dimensions of Globalization Economic dimension From the economic point of view, globalization is the process whereby the world economies are becoming increasingly integrated and interdependent, market-oriented approaches to development are spreading, the notion of state provision of privatization and deregulation are being withdrawn, trade and investment are being liberalized, and increased penetration of transnational corporations in life is being encouraged. Technological dimension From the technological point of view, globalization is the process of rapid innovation and increasing inter-connectivity, particularly for information and communication services, and biotechnologies. This is the process in which knowledge is the most important factor determining the standard of living, more than capital or labor. Today’s most technologically advanced economies are truly knowledgebased (World Bank, 1998). Political dimension From the political point of view, globalization is the new process of shifting the power from national governments in directing and influencing their economies, to global institutions, such as the World Bank, the European Union, the European Central Bank, the World Trade Organization, the World Health Organization, and the World Tourism Organization. In order to survive, national governments that can no longer manage their national economies must increasingly manage national politics by adapting them to the pressures of transnational market forces. Cultural dimension From the cultural point of view, globalization is the process of increasing homogeneity of lifestyles and aspirations via media, TV, films, tourism, etc., combined with the rapid spread of different views and greater opportunities for marginalized voices to be heard. Social dimension From the sociological point of view, globalization is the process of incorporating people into a single world society. The world is becoming a ‘‘global village.’’ Environmental dimension From the environmental point of view, globalization is the process of increasing interlinkages between ecosystems, accelerating biological invasions, simplifying and homogenizing natural systems, and intensifying pressure on global commons. Source: Saee, J. (2004). Managing organizations in a global economy: An intercultural perspective. Australia: Thomson. of services and flows of information and capital. Today, societies are services oriented and embrace new elements of globalization, such as information technology and experiences. Globalization is not just about modernization or Westernization and liberalization of markets; it is more than internationalization and universalization. 6 CHAPTER 1 Globalization, tourism and culture Today, globalization is about an intensification of worldwide economic, socio-cultural, political and environmental relations. These relations link distant places in such a way that local events are determined by international events, or in other words, what is happening locally is determined by what is happening globally (Saee, 2004). 1.2 BENEFITS AND CRITICISM OF GLOBALIZATION Several benefits of globalization have been identified, such as & & & & & & & & & & & & & Increased spread and connectedness of production and communication technologies across the world. Diffusion of ideas and practices around the world. New developments and technological improvements. Development of the knowledge economy. Growth and expansion. Increased economic and cultural activity. Gains in productivity and efficiency. Increases in revenues, profits and returns on investment, and raised incomes. Job creation. Growth in economies of scale achieved by centralizing the marketing and production activities. The rise of global brands and products that can be sold everywhere (e.g., Coca Cola, Nike, and Sony have become part of the lives of large numbers of people). Increased understanding of geography and experience of localness. Increased understanding of the world (Saee, 2004). Some of the major benefits of globalization, such as the new developments in the life sciences and digital technology, have opened vast, new possibilities for world production and exchange. Innovations such as the Internet have made it possible to access information and resources across the world. Access to knowledge and the knowledge itself have become the most important factors determining the standard of living, beyond labor and capital of production. Knowledge generates new ideas, turns them into commercial products and services, and increases revenues and incomes of those who know how to use it. Those who have knowledge can develop, grow, and succeed. All technologically advanced economies are knowledge based. Knowledge makes the nations and their economies truly competitive and successful. Unfortunately, not all nations and economies can benefit yet from globalization, developments in new information technology, and access to knowledge. Globalization is perceived by some as discriminatory and moving against human rights. Critics of globalization claim that globalization brings & Decline in the power of national governments and an increase in the power of multinational corporations and supranational organizations. National economies become dependent on activities of the major multinational corporations that have the capital and technical expertise. 1.2 Benefits and criticism of globalization 7 & & & & & & An increased polarization of the world in favor of the stronger economies. Poorer countries become dependent on activities in major economies, such as the United States. The gap dividing rich and poor nations is rapidly increasing. Rich and powerful nations have capital and technology; poor and powerless nations do not have access to capital and information technology. Those with capital and technology do not allow for generating and spreading information and knowledge equally among the other nations. Large corporations claim intellectual property rights over new discoveries in physics, chemistry, biology, for example, in genetic research, and receive large profits from licensing their knowledge to others. There are doubts whether modern economies are indeed knowledge economies. Supraterritoriality. Although most employment is local or regional, the strategic activities have been spread around the world. What happens in a local neighborhood is increasingly dependent upon the activities of people and systems operating in different countries and on different continents. People’s lives and their activities across the globe have become increasingly interdependent and interconnected. Negative impact on local communities. The big multinational companies usually operate in regions where they can exploit cheap labor and resources. Although profits flow into the local communities, the local industries are taken over by multinational corporations. This generates social and economic inequalities, large unemployment, low wages, and generally poor working conditions. Since children and young people represent the cheapest source of labor, they are economically exploited. Also, multinational companies have significant influence on the provision of infrastructure, such as hospitals, roads, and housing, which are built mainly to meet corporate demands rather than public needs. Delocalization and outsourcing. Many of the activities that were previously local are now being performed across great distances and national borders. Banking, telecommunication, and retailing have adapted new technologies that allow them to operate in different parts of the world with less customer-seller face-to-face interaction and thus reduce the cost of their operations. They serve local clients on different continents. Similarly, local bakeries, restaurants, and boutique shops have been closed in favor of opening big, cost-effective shopping malls. The result of economic and social activities leaving local regions and cultures in pursuit of cheap labor over the border has been this: a significant de-localization in world operations. Separation of work from the home. Technology has allowed people to communicate and make transactions between different places, spaces, and communities. As a result, the work place has been separated from the home place. People move between cities, regions, states, countries, and continents in search of jobs. They relocate to different geographic and time zones. Decline in social capital and civic community. A large segment of tourism activities has been converted into commercialized and privatized activities. Many public parks, outdoor recreation areas, land where children could play, beaches, fields and plantations have been purchased or rented by developers to build new housing complexes, apartments, or shopping malls. These events have seriously decreased the quality of life and sense of well being within communities. The features that first attracted 8 CHAPTER 1 Globalization, tourism and culture & & & & people to a local community, such as isolation, natural beauty, and peacefulness of landscape, have been gradually eroded by new developments and a faster pace of life. Imitation of Western culture. A large number of consumers, mainly from developing countries, have developed an interest in and demand for products and services that reflect the standards of the developed countries. They seek to imitate Western consumption patterns to enhance their social status and self-esteem. Standardization of the tourism product and disappearance of local standards. The process of globalization has led to the homogenization of consumption of such globally marketed goods and services as food, clothing, music, and travel products. Many communities follow global ideas and demand global products, in turn losing their local consumption patterns, distinct qualities, and sense of being different. Environmental degradation. The global industry has exploited the natural environment and radically changed its quality. The land, sea, and air have acquired commercial value. Many farming and fishing centers have been converted into new developments, resorts, shopping malls, or entertainment centers. These changes have often been irrevocable; they have turned the environment into places that cater to developers rather than local communities, causing alienation of locals and loss of their distinct qualities. Considerable risk. Technological and economic progress have generated high production risk across the globe. New diseases, viruses, and substances that threaten life on Earth are produced every day. They can quickly spread beyond their immediate context. The more that dangerous goods are produced on this Earth, the more peoples’ lives, properties, and commercial interests will be put at risk (see http://www.infed.org/biblio/globalization.htm). 1.3 GLOBALIZATION AND THE TOURISM INDUSTRY Tourism is one of the world’s largest multinational economic activities (Friedman, 1995); it ranks among the top five export industries for 83% of countries (Fayed & Fletcher, 2002). Tourism involves the greatest flows of goods, services, and people on the surface of the earth, and it is, therefore, the most visible expression of globalization. Although the role and share of tourism in international trade is constantly increasing in importance, trade in tourism services has been concentrated mainly in the developed countries, such as North America and the European Union. The share of developing countries in total world tourism is comparatively low, although rising significantly. 1.3.1 The influence of globalization on tourism Globalization has opened new opportunities for developments in tourism. Globalization has facilitated growth in tourism through developments in electronic technology, communication, and transportation. It has affected worldwide suppliers and computerized information and reservation systems, which have become more flexible and cost-effective; decreased costs of air travel; and offered easier access to destinations (Peric, 2005). The rapid spread of information technology has improved the efficiency of the industry’s 1.3 Globalization and the tourism industry 9 operations as well as the quality of services provided to consumers. It has also generated increased demand for new travel services, such as computerized hotel and car bookings, online reservation services, teleconferencing, video brochures, smart cards, and electronic funds transfer. The increasing use of the Internet in destination marketing, direct sales, and bookings has given rise to electronic tourism markets. The development of sophisticated websites has allowed for the direct dissemination of travel information to potential clients. The Internet has made travel products globally accessible at much lower costs. As a result, customer demand has become more technology- and Internet-driven. In fact, the Internet has become the most sought-after amenity in hotel rooms, airports, travel information and entertainment centers, and educational institutions. The impact of technology and the Internet has dramatically affected all operations of the travel industry and significantly reduced the need for travel intermediaries. 1.3.2 Forms and examples of globalization in tourism Globalization in tourism has taken many forms. The examples of globalization in the airline sector have included the liberalization of air transport that allowed for market access for private carriers, the formation of international alliances, privatization, restructuring of government-owned airlines, investment in foreign carriers, airline consolidations at the national level, joint ventures between airline companies or between airlines and equipment manufacturers, and outsourcing. The three major airline alliances have been Star Alliance, Oneworld, and SkyTeam (Dimanche & Jolly, 2006). These alliances have cooperated in marketing and promotion; standardization of equipment, services, and suppliers; development of a common brand; and sharing of frequent-flyers programs (Peric, 2005). Large air carriers developed computerized reservation systems, such as CRS and GDS, which facilitated the flight reservations process and became the main distribution and marketing tools in international tourism. Examples of globalization in the accommodation sector have included hotel cooperation and chain creation, joint ventures, franchising, management contracts, and consortia of independent hotels. Major international hotel groups include Intercontinental Hotels (the United Kingdom); Accor (France); and Cendant, Marriott, and Starwood Hotels and Resorts (the United States). These hotel corporations are involved in various countries worldwide. For example, Marriott International bought more than 50% of Renaissance Hotel Group and is presently managing more than 1300 hotels of different brands worldwide. Strategic partnerships provided Marriott International with access to 40 new markets, including Russia, China, Japan, India, Italy, and Turkey. Four Seasons Hotels used the strategic partnership with Regent International Hotels Ltd. to take over the management of hotels in Bangkok, Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpur, Melbourne, and Sydney (Knowles, Diamantis, & El-Mourhabi, 2001). Examples of globalization in the retail sector include partnerships, integration, and franchising. Tour operators and travel agencies entered into partnerships and/or integrated with hotels, charter airlines, retail distributors, and cruise companies. American Express developed a range of products in various sectors of the industry. Since it 10 CHAPTER 1 Globalization, tourism and culture focuses on the activities of 3200 travel agencies, it has become the largest tour operator in the United States, Australia, Canada, Mexico, and France (Knowles et al., 2001). Franchising and management contracts are used as management strategies by foodservice companies. Another example is the German group TUI, leisure tourism world leader. This integrated company owns travel agencies, tour operators, airlines, cruise ships, and hotels in more than 30 countries. Large firms have exerted their influence on the operations of local firms by, for example, obliging local authorities to comply with certain laws and imposing conditions on local suppliers. Some tour operators have exerted a strong influence on the ways hotels operate and the prices they charge. For example, one adventure tour operator from the United Kingdom, strongly committed to protecting the environment of the destinations it features, ensures that local suppliers comply with environmental protection rules and use environmentally friendly equipment, products, and materials (Peric, 2005). 1.3.3 A new type of tourist Globalization and the new political and economic world also brought changes to the tourist profile and preferences for products and services. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, scientific and technological advances led to mass production and the development of mass markets with similar attitudes and tastes. The consumer demanded mass-produced goods and services at a low price. This led the producers to mass produce products and services that had a universal appeal, such as fairly standardized mass-market package holidays. They offered good value products, though quality was sacrificed for price. This process has often been described as ‘‘McDonaldization’’ (Ritzer, 1993). New consumers have shown a completely different behavior pattern. They have become more globally oriented. As a result of developments in communication and information technology, and increased social and economic exchanges, they have been exposed to different cultures and developed new ideas and viewpoints. They have multiple demands, often borrowed from other cultures. They have become more dependent on information technology, self-service, and personal reservation tools. The new self-sufficient consumer has become more individualistic and requires more customized and highly developed products; greater choice, quality, and variety; and good value for money. Consumers have also begun to demand easier access to information technology, lower-cost transportation, and greater flexibility in travel (Akpinar, 2003). Moreover, after September 11, 2001, the fear of the unexpected, such as wars, political conflicts, terrorism, or incurable diseases, has increased consumers’ desire for safety, social stability, and order. Consumers have begun to re-evaluate their consumption behaviors, use of time, and attitudes toward leisure. They have chosen a new balance between career and family, and work and play. They have developed a new ‘‘wait and see’’ attitude, facilitated by ‘‘last-minute-purchase’’ web sites, resulting in late bookings. Also, the emergence of ‘‘search for experiences’’ as a travel motivator, as well as increased environmental awareness, has led travelers to modify their behavior and to look for alternative forms of travel. These changes in consumer behavior 1.3 Globalization and the tourism industry 11 have generated demand for new experiences. Consumers have begun to demand authentic and genuine experiences. A new type of tourist called the ‘‘experiential’’ tourist has emerged. This type of tourist is interested in novelty, ‘‘strangeness,’’ authenticity, and all that is different and that creates unique experiences. As a result, the industry has striven to organize tours to various localities that have something unique and specific and that set them apart from other destinations with their scenic beauty, festivals, or art works. The new tourist has also developed new, intrinsic travel motivations and cultural needs, such as seeking new identity, self-actualization, and self-development, rather than physical recreation and rest. As a result, the suppliers must pay more attention to what the new tourist thinks and feels. Such a shift in consumption preferences has begun to produce a new tourist who demands new products, variety, flexibility, and personalization. New tourists have also begun to develop new values and worldviews that stress the importance of family and ecology. It is hoped that in such a world, traveling will come to be more about developing social relations, preserving natural resources, becoming educated, and maximizing the quality of experience than about the quantity of products purchased. In fact, more and more tourists are seeking the fulfillment of intrinsic needs and finding self-expression in culture, ethics, and morality; understanding the importance of intellectual, emotional, and spiritual well-being; and becoming more concerned about the planet, its resources, and its inhabitants all coexisting in peace. Such changes in consumer behavior have also brought changes to destination marketing and called for the development of more targeted and customized products. A number of new lifestyle segments, such as single-parent households; ‘‘empty nesters’’ (couples whose children have left home); double-income couples without kids (DINKS); baby boomers; and generations X, Y, and M, have became prevalent in tourism and signaled the need for a more differentiated approach to targeting. The identification of the specific needs of the individual customer have called for product diversification, customization, and exploitation of niche marketing. Table 1.3 shows the examples of the influence of globalization on tourism. Table 1.3 The Influence of Globalization on Tourism Culture Creation of global village Globalization of culture Global uniform culture Global tourist; uniform tourist behavior Culture change Resistant to change in culture Emergence of local identity Emergence of local consumer behavior Glocalization 12 CHAPTER 1 Globalization, tourism and culture TABLE 1.3 (Continued ) Ecology Ecological degradation Climate changes and their effects on destinations Global warming and its effect on tourism businesses Economy Horizontal and vertical integration strategies of tourism enterprises Foreign investments in hotels and tourist attractions Global players and strategic alliances (air companies, hotels, tour operators) Global tourism management Global competition of vacation resorts Politics Increasing importance of international tourism organizations Necessity for global coordination and regulation of passenger circulation Sustainable development as quality and dominant idea Technology Global booking systems Global distribution networks Web 2.0 tools Mobile phone technology Standardized technologies in transport systems Tourist behavior Global orientation Dependence on information technology Use of self-service and personal reservation tools Demand for new experiences Increased uncertainty and fear New intrinsic travel motivations Wait-and-see attitude Sensitivity to price Travel cost-cutting Individual travel, do it yourself Travel by car/coach/train instead of plane Accommodation other than hotel (apartments, country houses, bed and breakfasts) Visiting family and relatives Note. Some items adapted from Peric, V. (2005). Tourism and globalization. In the Proceedings of the 6th International Conference of the Faculty of Management Koper, Congress Centre Bernardin, Slovenia, 24–26 November 2005. 1.3 Globalization and the tourism industry 13 1.3.4 A new type of tourism Changing values of the new consumer have created a demand for new products and provided a driving force for the development of new types of tourism. Traditional mass tourism, although still prevalent, is evolving into a ‘‘new tourism,’’ often called responsible, soft, alternative, green, or sustainable tourism. The new types of tourism that hold a great potential for the future tourism market are cultural tourism; health, wellness and spa; nature-based; educational; wildlife; geo-; genealogic; gastronomic or food and wine; photographic; volunteer; virtual; experiential; space; ethical or moral; community; and para tourism. These new types of tourism require tourism product customization, which has begun to play an important role in the industry and tourism marketing. The industry is facing the challenge of catering to the individual tourist’s needs, and it is therefore transforming itself from being focused on the mass market to becoming diversified and focused on individual tourists’ needs. Table 1.4 shows the global values and future demand for new tourism products. Table 1.4 Global Values and New Tourism Products Values General Features Relevance to Tourist Behavior Community Public service Demand for products that create a sense of community and connect with the community (social events, social tourism) Culture Culture more important than money and material possessions Demand for cultural products (art, music, film, museums, galleries, concerts, cultural tourism, ethnic tourism) Ecology Importance of saving, conserving, and protecting natural resources Demand for products that protect fragile environment and nature (eco-friendly products, ecotourism, geotourism, nature-based tourism, wildlife tourism) Education Education is the best investment Demands for products that encourage learning experiences (books, guides, videos, educational tourism, cultural tourism, wildlife tourism, interpretation services, special interest tourism, food and wine tourism) 14 CHAPTER 1 Globalization, tourism and culture TABLE 1.4 (Continued ) Values General Features Relevance to Tourist Behavior Family Importance of family relations, support and love Demand for products that bond family together (games, sport and fishing products, family vacations, group activities, genealogy tourism, community tourism) Friendship Importance of friendship, friends are forever Demand for products that allow people to spend time with friends and show appreciation (games, card, gifts, wine, tea, jewelry, visiting friends and relatives, community tourism, volunteer tourism) Harmony Social harmony Demand for products and services that create social harmony (social events, social tourism, ethical tourism, moral tourism) Humanitarianism Caring for others, empathy, human rights Demand for products that compete with commercial market leaders (products for elders, disabled, unemployed, fund-raising events, donations, voluntary tourism, tourism for those with special needs, subsidized vacations, non-profit tourism) Love Importance of feelings, ethics and morality Demand for products that generate and teach feelings (poetry, music, art, romantic cruises, nostalgic tourism, nature-based tourism) Safety and security Importance of safety, security, social stability, and order Demand for risk-free products and products that reduce risk (comfortable and safe clothing, transportation, sport and kitchen equipment; translating, guiding and interpreting services; insurance) 1.4 Globalization and culture 15 TABLE 1.4 (Continued ) Values General Features Relevance to Tourist Behavior Spirituality Importance of inner values, inner peace, satisfaction Demand for spiritual and religious products that allow people to understand their inner self and the purpose of life (stones, crystals; tarot cards; bibles; religious books; spiritual retreats; pilgrimages; health, wellness, spa tourism; religious tourism; experiential tourism; trips to sacred sites) Source: Reisinger, Y. (2006). Shopping in tourism. In D. Buhalis & D. Costa (Eds.), Tourism business frontiers: Consumers, products and industry. Burlington, MA: Elsevier. 1.4 GLOBALIZATION AND CULTURE 1.4.1 The emergence of globalized consumer culture? It seems that the world’s consumption patterns are following a global consumer culture characterized by a high level of desire for and consumption of material possessions (Ger & Belk, 1999). This is accompanied by the acquisition and display of goods and services which is a source of destructive envy and resentment but also desire and admiration (Belk, 1988) and fuels consumers’ needs (Ger & Belk, 1999), even in countries where purchasing power does not allow access to goods and services. High levels of consumption are generally believed to be a symbol of the good life. Also, global consumer culture dictates that people strongly believe in the unlimited ability and achievements of science and modern technology. Modern technology has produced and disseminated information and images that convince people of its ability to solve all human problems, such as disease, hunger, and poverty, and to offer the means to a better and bigger future. These images have led to the desire to possess everything, enjoy freedom, and make change. Global consumer culture is thus characterized by high purchasing power, high individualism, individual freedom, a strong focus on material achievements and possessions, a belief in time as a scare commodity, a tendency to devalue the past in favor of a future orientation, and enthusiasm for change and innovation. Consumption has become a necessity in order not to be behind the time, to live like a human being of the contemporary world, and to achieve major economic growth and liberalization (Ger, 1992). However, in some cultures consumption and materialism are generalized symbols that stand for evil (Wuthnow, 1994) and are seen as being foolish, wasteful, and shallow. It is believed the excessive consumption and materialism create humanistic, social, environmental and religious discourses. For example, 16 CHAPTER 1 Globalization, tourism and culture one of the environmental concerns that is typical of global culture and is caused by excessive consumption patterns is the increased level of pollution and the depletion of the ozone layers. 1.4.2 Global consumer and global products? Some argue that in a new global world consumers have become increasingly similar in their values and behavior patterns despite their national cultural characteristics; global consumers are increasingly eating the same food, wearing the same brands, and watching the same TV programs (DeMooij, 2004). It is argued that it is even possible to identify consumers on a worldwide basis. For example, one can create segments of consumers with a similar global profile and attitudes. These segments can be targeted without reference to their national characteristics. For example, marketers can easily distinguish among the European, American, or Asian consumers who share particular characteristics; they have similar lifestyles, incomes, and interests. These segments can be targeted with global products. The global products are of similar nature and are produced for similar consumers (rather than consumers demanding them). For example, global business travelers can be targeted with global brands from a wide variety of duty-free shops. Global products are advertised and sold in many countries around the world. In 2007, Amadeus, a world leader in technology solutions for the travel industry, published a report that identified four major ‘‘traveller tribes’’ that may emerge in the next 10–15 years and potentially transform how the airline industry delivers its products and services. These tribes include global executives, active seniors, cosmopolitan travelers, and global clans (www.amadeus.com). According to Amadeus, these tribes will be recognized across borders and cultures. However, there is also an argument that there is no such thing as a global consumer. One cannot distinguish among European, American, or Asian consumers because of the differences in their lifestyles across continents and countries as well as at the local, regional, and national levels. For example, although there are clear differences between the EU countries, there is also a fundamental disparity in their value systems and lifestyles (Wierenga, Pruyn, & Waarts, 1996). Numerous studies suggest that a global tourist does not exist (see Reisinger & Turner, 1999a, 2002a, 2002b). Very different people live in the different countries of the world. They have different cultures and behavior patterns. For example, Asian consumers cannot be clustered into one group because Japanese differ from Thais, Thais differ from Indonesians, Indonesians differ from Chinese, and Chinese differ from Koreans. Similarly, there are differences among European consumers: German consumers differ from French, British, and Italians. Because there are these cultural differences among consumers from different countries, the marketing mix must also change to suit the national characteristics. 1.4.3 Disappearance of local cultures? It is argued that global consumption patterns and global consumers do not exist. The true globalization of consumption patterns and global consumers could occur in a 1.4 Globalization and culture 17 genuine global world only. This would happen only when French consumers develop a real taste for peanut butter, American women decide to wear kimonos, and Australian men swap their shorts and things for Bavarian lederhosen (Usunier, 2005). This, however, is not possible. Local cultures and their consumption patterns do not disappear. For example, both Americans and Europeans like their coffee, but the Americans treat their coffee as a morning necessity, while the Europeans treat their coffee as a social and leisure event. Similarly, Americans and Australians have different eating habits (fast food versus slow food). It is possible that consumption patterns could be globalized if everyone were to adapt others’ ways of life and cultural values. However, a direct adaption of others’ ways of life and values might not be effective. In fact, the potential for one society to adapt the values and consumption patterns of another is limited. For example, the adaption of the American (or Westernized) style of life would be difficult to implement in other countries (e.g., developing countries) with different tastes and preferences. Some countries might be resistant to a change and disapprove others’ technological developments and adaptation of ideas (e.g., China, Japan, and France often oppose US ideas). Further, although some people might share global values that transcend national borders (e.g., teenagers wear jeans or watch MTV), they often have to give up on these values and re-adapt nationally accepted values. For example, when Japanese young people join the workforce or start a family, they are expected to follow culturally appropriate behavior. Significant elements of local culture, such as dress, social relations rules, or language patterns, must be followed. 1.4.4 Cultural homogenization? There are arguments that globalization leads to cultural homogenization. The growing economic and cultural interdependency has accelerated the homogenization of consumer demands for and universal acceptance of global products such as food, drink, clothing, music, and film. The new developments in technology and media communication, such as the Internet, television programs, travel documentaries, and online newspapers and magazines, have allowed people from different regions and cultures to contact each other, communicate, expose themselves to other cultures, and export their own. The cumulative effect of the communication media and of tourists bringing in new ideas and products reflecting urban, Western ideals is additional cultural exposure and exportation. The end result is that similar products are consumed throughout the world, especially by teenagers, who quickly adapt the same fashions, jargon, music, or entertainment preferences. Thus, globalization significantly accelerates cultural homogenization (McLeod, 2004) and convergence toward a common set of cultural traits and practices. Those who believe in a continuous cultural homogenization also believe that global culture follows the global economy and so-called ‘‘McDonaldization’’ and ‘‘Cocacolonization.’’ The notion of ‘‘McDonaldization’’ refers to the worldwide homogenization of societies through the impact of multinational corporations, cultural Westernization, and, in particular, Americanization of the entire globe. Other nations have 18 CHAPTER 1 Globalization, tourism and culture followed the US pattern of buying cars, home electronics, and fast food. People around the world identify themselves with McDonald’s and Coca-Cola. The homogenization of culture around the world began with the McDonaldization of society. Consumption has been built upon a standardized brand image, mass production, advertising, and the high status attached to Western products and services, particularly US products. The global consumer has been targeted by the images of non-utilitarian values, such as dreams of affluence and personal success, rather than the utilitarian convenience of global products. Societies have become very consumption oriented. Over the years, the process of cultural homogenization has been strengthened by the rise of the Internet and other information technologies. Companies such as Yahoo, Microsoft, Google, and Motorola have become more important cultural icons than McDonald’s and Coca-Cola. Also, Western education and knowledge have disseminated Western standards and created similar values that have influenced international organizations, such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the United Nations, and many other multinational/global corporations. This, of course, has given rise to the emergence of similar interests of global elites. 1.4.5 Product standardization or customization? It seems that consumer purchasing patterns are becoming similar across the world. The US purchasing patterns are followed by others. However, the emergence of a global consumer culture implies a certain standard to follow. This standard means that (1) the same product is offered to everybody, everywhere, all the time; and (2) the product’s quality is also the same. This standardization has four benefits: (1) it implies efficiency of production and delivery to a consumer; (2) it allows for quantification based on measured criteria; (3) it guarantees predictability (the consumer has access to the same product across different places and times); and (4) it guarantees the following of strict production and delivery rules, and allows for control. This standardized consumption pattern has often been criticized for not being good and useful to people in all cultures. The meaning of standardization and its implications for the consumer might differ in various cultures. For example, the fast-food concept and product standardization have been successfully adapted in the People’s Republic of China, where consumers praise shorter waiting time and fast service. However, it has been received with criticism in France, where consumers seek distinctiveness and identity. The issue of standardization has been debated in the American market context, mostly. The United States is the ultimate example of a homogenous country where one finds the same types of hotels, shops, fast-food restaurants, etc., all over the country. The country does not have cultural differences shaped by many centuries of inhibited communication and exchange between different regions (Wierenga, Pruyn, & Waarts, 1996). Since global consumers increasingly follow the American consumption patterns, shopping malls, hotels, airports, banks, and even gambling casinos are quickly becoming indistinguishable, whether they are in the Americas, Australia, Europe, or Asia. Only the world religions, languages, and currencies continue to show major differences among nations. It is possible, however, that these differences will also 1.4 Globalization and culture 19 disappear. Fortunately, evidence suggests that cultural differences between regions of the United States are significantly increasing instead of diminishing (Kahle, 1986). 1.4.6 Cultural heterogenization? Some believe that the process of globalization has led to a culture of heterogenization. Heterogeneity is developed through an increasing emphasis on local cultural elements, such as language, education, religion, traditions, art and crafts, food, shared history, or the role of family. These elements are created and brought by the arrival of different people from a wide variety of cultural backgrounds. As a result, people become exposed to various cultures and are made increasingly aware of their differences. However, the process of cultural heterogenization is limited. Global foreign brands, theme parks, films, and television programs have different meanings and impacts in the world. The American soap operas are interpreted very differently among Japanese, Israelis, Algerians, and Americans (Liebes & Katz, 1990). Likewise, the Western clothes, soft drinks, cigarettes, liquor, films, and books that flooded Eastern and Central European countries significantly differed from the ethnic clothing and foods, and thus were not always popular on the local markets. One may also argue that the processes of cultural homogenization and heterogenization occur simultaneously, albeit at different levels. The homogenization of the consumption patterns occurs at the international level, whereas the efforts to maintain cultural uniqueness and distinctiveness occur more at the regional and local level. 1.4.7 Cultural convergence or divergence? The concepts of cultural homogenization and heterogenization have led to two theories, one claiming that the world’s cultures are converging and others diverging. The first theory claims that since the world is under pressure to become global and more homogenized, it converges to commonality. As more and more people cross national borders, trade goods and assets, and exchange ideas and cultures, the planet is getting smaller, and its cultures are converging (mainly economically and technologically). The second theory claims that the flows of goods, assets, and knowledge are directed towards the main centers of capital and knowledge only. Societies that do not have access to electronic technology and cannot communicate with each other across the globe remain uninformed and thus lack accurate and adequate knowledge of the world. As a result, according to Burns, these societies and their cultures are diverging (mainly in social relations) (cited in Wahab & Cooper, 2003). 1.4.8 Cultural hybridization? There are also arguments that increasing interconnections between people and places have caused the partial convergence of cultures and led to new forms of culture called cultural hybridization (Meethan, 2001). Cultural hybridization implies the incorporation of cultural elements from a variety of sources within particular cultural practices. 20 CHAPTER 1 Globalization, tourism and culture For example, the McDonald’s in Moscow mixes an American fast-food restaurant into a Russian market. American students living in Toronto eat at a Vietnamese restaurant. Japanese women wearing kimonos use the bank’s automated teller machines. Cultural hybridization can develop through migration or bio-cultural marriages allowing for the combination of two identities, two languages, and two cultures. Hybridization is the solution to cultural polarization (homogenization versus heterogenization). Hybridization allows for movement and negotiations between the cultures. 1.4.9 Cultural commoditization? As a result of globalization and the attempt to respond to tourists’ demands for cultural experiences, culture is often commoditized and transformed into a new form (commodity) in order to sell it. Cultural commoditization is done by creating inauthentic cultural artifacts, specifically designed for tourist consumption, and adapting them to the needs of tourists. They are accepted by many tourists as being traditional cultural products. Many would argue that cultural commoditization is the worst effect of globalization on culture. Turning authentic cultural products into commercialized commodities for tourist consumption strips these products of their original quality and meanings; they have nothing to do with the traditional and genuine ways of their production and are far from the traditional way of life that produced them (Richards, 1996). Although cultural commoditization is unavoidable, it is not necessarily a bad thing. Cultural commoditization can be the solution to local cultural deterioration. By becoming cultural artifacts for tourists, local products are recognized and traditional values enhanced. Cultural commoditization can be a means of cultural conservation and preservation, provided that local communities maintain control over their own products. 1.4.10 Cultural deterioration, loss, adaptation or change? There is a belief that globalization has led to cultural commoditization and erosion of cultural forms. Since culture has been comodified and commercialized for the purpose of sale to mass tourists, many elements of culture have deteriorated and even significantly eroded. Also, the increasing contact between peoples from different cultures has caused some communities to change their local values and traditions. In fact, some communities have lost their traditional values by adapting to foreign values. As a result, pristine, genuine, and authentic elements of local culture have disappeared. The development of new technology has become a major threat to cultural authenticity. The media and communication technology that created the demand for the unfamiliar have homogenized culture. For example, the development of tourism in Bali that generated demand for comodified forms of the local culture caused cultural pollution, disappearance of genuine local traditions, and a threat to the Balinese people. Likewise, the development of tourism in the Caribbean and Goa brought commoditization and deterioration of the local culture (Meethan, 2001). 1.4 Globalization and culture 21 Some argue that globalization has not homogenized and deteriorated culture. Increasing interconnections between people and places has caused the convergence of cultures and cultural change. Culture changed through cultural contacts, cultural borrowing, and adaptation. Cultural elements, both material and non-material, are being transformed between places, adjusted, and adapted for more localized forms of consumption. As a result, cultures have become so intermixed that there is no longer any pure or authentic culture distinct from others. For example, hybridization of culture has brought a loss of cultural ‘‘purity’’ and authenticity. Thus, one also can no longer assume that cultures are territorially bounded and self-contained wholes (Meethan, 2001). However, the spread of globalization does not always have to cause a loss of cultural purity. In some regions culture adapts itself to foreign themes. The production of local products is adapted to tourist consumption. This is an example of cultural change (local consumption change through differentiation) but not an example of a loss of cultural authenticity or purity through commoditization (Meethan, 2001). 1.4.11 Consumerism a bad thing for tourism? One of the universal results of globalization is consumerism, defined by an increasing demand for high consumption of a variety of products and services. Consumerism affects tourists by exposing them to the attitudes of the consumer-oriented society, with its modern, urban lifestyle, expectations of high service levels, and an understanding that everything is for sale. It is often believed that consumerism destroys culture and generates environmental and social problems such as congestion, overcrowding, and queues at attractions, museums, and restaurants. For example, the overwhelming influx of tourists in Venice has produced a growing number of negative environmental and social impacts. Venice is essentially ‘‘full’’ of tourists. The invasion of visitors in St. Mark’s Basilica has caused serious damage to the frescos through the condensation of the visitors’ breath. Also, the stones underfoot have been worn away by the stream of visitors. However, these environmental problems are often accepted by tourists and seen as being an important part of their experience (Richards, 1996). Tourist consumption does not necessarily have to destroy culture. High tourism consumption creates high demand for cultural preservation and conservation. Tourism consumption revitalizes local traditions and authenticity, promotes cultural awareness, and creates new systems of values and power. One must only know which elements of culture are for sale and tourist consumption, which are not, and which need to be preserved. 1.4.12 Globalization and disappearance of local identity? McLeod (2004) believes that globalization destroys socio-cultural identity of the local community and its native values, traditions, and way of life. Today, the land and sea are often acquired by developers who turn farms and fishing centers into tourist 22 CHAPTER 1 Globalization, tourism and culture resorts, and cut off fields and forests to build apartments and commercial centers. Modern hotels, expressways, and bridges lack the previous local uniqueness and appeal. Everything that initially attracted tourism, such as the beauty of the landscape, peacefulness, or isolation, including the qualities of life, are gradually eroded by tourism developments and the faster pace of life. Fishermen become shopkeepers and tour guides, young women seek financial independence and emotional liberation, locals reinterpret traditional roles and events, and all follow different patterns of life and values. The meaning of local culture is dissolving. Tourists now go fishing in ‘‘real’’ fishing boats while fishermen work in supermarkets, and locals eat ‘‘local’’ dishes in modern restaurants while watching themselves performing traditional dances in promotional videos (McLeod, 2004). This results in locals becoming alienated from their natural and local surrounding. With the increasing influx of foreigners, new technology, and modern lifestyles, opportunities for maintaining local identities become smaller and even disappearing. Also, as more infrastructure and apartments are built, and locals follow global life patterns, the experiences of visitors and locals are getting lower. Consequently, globalization and tourism development destroys local identities, the quality of tourism, and tourism itself (McLeod, 2004). 1.4.13 Resistance to cultural change and emergence of local identity There is growing evidence of local resistance to the forces of globalization that have destroyed local cultures. In Europe, which is culturally very fragmented, the process of resistance to global cultural influences is in progress. European countries pay particular attention to their cultural identities, origins of artists, rituals, art works, buildings, and even whole landscapes. Cultural differences are increasingly emphasized. Cultural differences are what attract tourists to a particular place. The most attractive are the differences that are unique, authentic, and place bound. Thus, in an increasingly globalized and culturally homogenized world, there is a growing need to establish local difference. However, the degree of difference must not be too great because it would cause disturbance and friction between the local population and tourists. Local resistance to globalization also gives rise to nationalism. Through the means of mass communication and increased social contacts, people and nations realize that they can strive for cultural sovereignty and identity. Individual communities often fight for their cultural recognition, history, and distinct qualities. For example, despite the European Union’s increasing involvement in the lives of its countries and an increasing number of arrivals of foreign nationals, European countries have not lost their identities and sense of themselves (McLeod, 2004). Numerous European communities guard their national borders and currencies and preserve culture and language. It is hoped that the national identities of many European communities will not disappear. According to Hall (1990), it is not likely that globalization destroys national identity of distinct communities. People will search for local roots and go to various lengths to preserve the national, state, community, and individual values. 1.5 Benefits and limitations of globalization in tourism 23 1.4.14 Glocalization One of the important means of preserving local/regional identity is glocalization. Glocalization represents a blend of globalization and localization, and it means that globalization is adapted to local conditions (R…

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