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Capacitors Nominal Value: 0.150 uF range setting 200nF Capacitor Measured Value (µF) 1 0.154 2 0.145 3 0.165 4 0.161 5 0.155 6 0.151 7 0.160 8 0.150 9 0.154 10 0.150 Resistors Nominal Value 3.9 kΩ range setting Resistor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Resistors Nominal Value 3.9 kΩ 20 kΩ Measured Value (kΩ) 3.86 3.91 3.89 3.88 3.88 3.88 3.85 3.89 3.88 3.91 Week3: Capacitor and Resistor Measurements PHYS261 – Fall 2020 Capacitor and Resistor Measurements Objectives: 1. Understand how to interpret equipment manuals to determine measurement uncertainty 2. Understand manufacturer specifications for parts and equipment Introduction: a) Nominal value and tolerance As previously covered, every measurement has an uncertainty associated with it; this applies to manufacturer specifications for electronic components as well. Capacitors and resistors (out of factory) are given a nominal value and tolerance. These specifications are usually printed on a capacitor using codes of combined numbers and letters and on resistors using color bands. The nominal value is the mean value of mass-produced components. The tolerance, either an absolute value or a percentage, indicates the standard deviation. An actual value of a component will most likely fall within in the range of nominal value “+/-” tolerance. For example, if a resistor is specified as having a resistance value 5 kΩ ± 5%, the actual resistance is most likely between 4.75 kΩ and 5.25 kΩ. For capacitors, the typical tolerance is anywhere between 10%-20%. The specifications are used to choose the correct component for a circuit. However, before using a component in a circuit, you may want to measure the actual value and evaluate the error bar. b) Measured value and instrument uncertainty An electronic component is usually measured with a device called a digital multimeter (DMM). From a DMM, you can read out the measured value and calculate the associated uncertainty. This uncertainty is caused by the DMM, called instrument uncertainty, which depends not only on the make/model of DMM but also on the range setting used in the measurement. In this lab you will perform error analysis on resistance/capacitance measurements collected using an Amprobe CR50A Digital Multimeter. You will calculate the uncertainty according to the user’s manual and compare this instrument uncertainty to the manufacturer specifications for each Figure 1. Pictures of capacitors and resistor and symbols in a circuit diagram. 1 of 3 Week3: Capacitor and Resistor Measurements PHYS261 – Fall 2020 component. For the capacitors the specified tolerance was 20%. For resistors the specified tolerance is 5%. Components and equipment: 1) Capacitor and capacitance Capacitor, being an energy storage device, is one of the importance components in electric equipment. A capacitor is made of two pieces of metal conductor separated by an insulator. Its ability to store energy is measured by its capacitance that is usually denoted by C in SI unit of Farad (F). A commonly used capacitor is in the range of mF to pF, a few orders of magnitude lower than F. You can find pictures of different types of capacitors in your textbook (i.e. Figures 24.4 and 24.7). The type of capacitors we will use in this lab (and the corresponding circuit symbol) are shown in Figure 1. Capacitors with two legs of the same length are non-polarized, which means the two legs are identical and interchangeable when connected to other components, including measuring equipment. 2) Resistor and resistance Figure 1 also shows a picture of resistors and the circuit symbol. Resistors are made of conductors, which is usually characterized by its resistance. Resistance measures the level of difficulty for electric current to flow through a resistor. R usually represents a resistor in a circuit diagram. SI unit of resistance is Ohm (usually denoted by Ω). In an electric circuit, resistors are usually in the range of a few Ω to MΩ. Figure 2. (a) Mul
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